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Evapotranspiration rates and the ground water component of evapotranspiration at a site in Colorado's San Luis Valley that is dominated by shrubby phreatophytes (greasewood and rabbitbrush) were compared before and after a water table drawdown. Evapotranspiration (ET) rates at the site were first measured in 1985–1987 (pre-drawdown) when the mean water table depth was 0.92 m. Regional ground water pumping has since lowered the water table by 1.58 m, to a mean of 2.50 m. We measured ET at the same site in 1999–2003 (post-drawdown), and assessed physical and biological factors affecting the response of ET to water table drawdown. Vegetation changed markedly from the pre-drawdown to the post-drawdown period as phreatophytic...
Evapotranspiration determined using the energy-budget method at a semi-permanent prairie-pothole wetland in east-central North Dakota, USA was compared with 12 other commonly used methods. The Priestley-Taylor and deBruin-Keijman methods compared best with the energy-budget values; mean differences were less than 0.1 mm d−1, and standard deviations were less than 0.3 mm d−1. Both methods require measurement of air temperature, net radiation, and heat storage in the wetland water. The Penman, Jensen-Haise, and Brutsaert-Stricker methods provided the next-best values for evapotranspiration relative to the energy-budget method. The mass-transfer, deBruin, and Stephens-Stewart methods provided the worst comparisons;...
Non-native shrub species in the genus Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk) have colonized hundreds of thousands of hectares of floodplains, reservoir margins, and other wetlands in western North America. Many resource managers seek to reduce saltcedar abundance and control its spread to increase the flow of water in streams that might otherwise be lost to evapotranspiration, to restore native riparian (streamside) vegetation, and to improve wildlife habitat. However, increased water yield might not always occur and has been substantially lower than expected in water salvage experiments, the potential for successful revegetation is variable, and not all wildlife taxa clearly prefer native plant habitats over saltcedar....
In dryland ecosystems, the timing and magnitude of precipitation pulses drive many key ecological processes, notably soil water availability for plants and soil microbiota. Plant available water has frequently been viewed simply as incoming precipitation, yet processes at larger scales drive precipitation pulses, and the subsequent transformation of precipitation pulses to plant available water are complex. We provide an overview of the factors that influence the spatial and temporal availability of water to plants and soil biota using examples from western USA drylands. Large spatial- and temporal-scale drivers of regional precipitation patterns include the position of the jet streams and frontal boundaries, the...
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This dataset is a Basin Characterization Model (BCM) output using the GFDL A2 Scenario for Climatic Water Deficit (CWD) in southern Sierra Nevada California, for 2010-2039. The term climatic water deficit defined by Stephenson (1998) is quantified as the amount of water by which potential evapotranspiration (PET) exceeds actual evapotranspiration (AET). This term effectively integrates the combined effects of solar radiation, evapotranspiration, and air temperature on watershed conditions given available soil moisture derived from precipitation. Climatic water deficit can be thought of as the amount of additional water that would have evaporated or transpired had it been present in the soils given the temperature...
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This dataset is a Basin Characterization Model (BCM) output using the PCM A2 Scenario for annual Climatic Water Deficit (CWD), 2070-2099, clipped to the DRECP 12 km buffered boundary. The term climatic water deficit defined by Stephenson (1998) is quantified as the amount of water by which potential evapotranspiration (PET) exceeds actual evapotranspiration (AET). This term effectively integrates the combined effects of solar radiation, evapotranspiration, and air temperature on watershed conditions given available soil moisture derived from precipitation. Climatic water deficit can be thought of as the amount of additional water that would have evaporated or transpired had it been present in the soils given the...
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This dataset is a Basin Characterization Model (BCM) output using the PCM A2 Scenario for average Spring (March, April, May) snowpack, in central Sierra Nevada California, for 2040-2069. Snowpack: Amount of snow accumulated per month summed annually, or if divided by 12 average monthly snowpack. This is calculated as prior month's snowpack plus snowfall minus sublimation and snow melt. The California Basin Characterization Model (BCM) climate dataset provides historical and projected climate surfaces for the state at a 270 meter resolution. The historical data is based on 4 kilometer PRISM data, and the projected climate surfaces are based on the A2 and B1 scenarios of the PCM and GFDL GCMs. The BCM approach uses...
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This dataset is a Basin Characterization Model (BCM) output using the PCM A2 Scenario for annual recharge, 2010-2039, clipped to the DRECP 12 km buffered boundary. Recharge: Amount of water exceeding field capacity that enters bedrock, occurs at a rate determined by the hydraulic conductivity of the underlying materials, excess water (rejected recharge) is added to runoff. The California Basin Characterization Model (BCM) climate dataset provides historical and projected climate surfaces for the state at a 270 meter resolution. The historical data is based on 4 kilometer PRISM data, and the projected climate surfaces are based on the A2 and B1 scenarios of the PCM and GFDL GCMs. The BCM approach uses a regional...
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This dataset is a Basin Characterization Model (BCM) output using the PCM A2 Scenario for average Spring (March, April, May) snowpack, 2010-2039, clipped to the DRECP 12 km buffered boundary. Snowpack: Amount of snow accumulated per month summed annually, or if divided by 12 average monthly snowpack. This is calculated as prior month's snowpack plus snowfall minus sublimation and snow melt. The California Basin Characterization Model (BCM) climate dataset provides historical and projected climate surfaces for the state at a 270 meter resolution. The historical data is based on 4 kilometer PRISM data, and the projected climate surfaces are based on the A2 and B1 scenarios of the PCM and GFDL GCMs. The BCM approach...
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This dataset is a historic average Spring (March, April, May) snowpack, for 1971-2000, clipped to the DRECP 12 km buffered boundary from the California Basin Characterization Model (BCM) Snowpack: Amount of snow accumulated per month summed annually, or if divided by 12 average monthly snowpack. This is calculated as prior month's snowpack plus snowfall minus sublimation and snow melt. The California Basin Characterization Model (BCM) climate dataset provides historical and projected climate surfaces for the state at a 270 meter resolution. The historical data is based on 4 kilometer PRISM data, and the projected climate surfaces are based on the A2 and B1 scenarios of the PCM and GFDL GCMs. The BCM approach...
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This dataset is a Basin Characterization Model (BCM) output using the PCM A2 Scenario for Climatic Water Deficit (CWD) in southern Sierra Nevada California, for 2010-2039. The term climatic water deficit defined by Stephenson (1998) is quantified as the amount of water by which potential evapotranspiration (PET) exceeds actual evapotranspiration (AET). This term effectively integrates the combined effects of solar radiation, evapotranspiration, and air temperature on watershed conditions given available soil moisture derived from precipitation. Climatic water deficit can be thought of as the amount of additional water that would have evaporated or transpired had it been present in the soils given the temperature...
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This dataset is a Basin Characterization Model (BCM) output using the GFDL A2 Scenario for Climatic Water Deficit (CWD) in central Sierra Nevada California, for 2070-2099. The term climatic water deficit defined by Stephenson (1998) is quantified as the amount of water by which potential evapotranspiration (PET) exceeds actual evapotranspiration (AET). This term effectively integrates the combined effects of solar radiation, evapotranspiration, and air temperature on watershed conditions given available soil moisture derived from precipitation. Climatic water deficit can be thought of as the amount of additional water that would have evaporated or transpired had it been present in the soils given the temperature...
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This dataset is a Basin Characterization Model (BCM) output using the PCM A2 Scenario for average Spring (March, April, May) snowpack, in southern Sierra Nevada California, for 2010-2039. Snowpack: Amount of snow accumulated per month summed annually, or if divided by 12 average monthly snowpack. This is calculated as prior month's snowpack plus snowfall minus sublimation and snow melt. The California Basin Characterization Model (BCM) climate dataset provides historical and projected climate surfaces for the state at a 270 meter resolution. The historical data is based on 4 kilometer PRISM data, and the projected climate surfaces are based on the A2 and B1 scenarios of the PCM and GFDL GCMs. The BCM approach uses...
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This dataset is a Basin Characterization Model (BCM) output using the PCM A2 Scenario for average Winter (December, January, February) snowpack, in northern Sierra Nevada California, for 2070-2099. Snowpack: Amount of snow accumulated per month summed annually, or if divided by 12 average monthly snowpack. This is calculated as prior month's snowpack plus snowfall minus sublimation and snow melt. The California Basin Characterization Model (BCM) climate dataset provides historical and projected climate surfaces for the state at a 270 meter resolution. The historical data is based on 4 kilometer PRISM data, and the projected climate surfaces are based on the A2 and B1 scenarios of the PCM and GFDL GCMs. The BCM...
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This dataset represents Runoff change, from Basin Characterization Model (BCM) output using the GFDL A2 Scenario in southern Sierra Nevada California, for 2070-2099. The data was processed using historic Runoff (1979-2000) and Runoff (2070-2099) to calculate change. Runoff: Amount of water that becomes stream flow, summed annually. Modeled as amount of water that exceeds total soil storage and rejected recharge. The California Basin Characterization Model (BCM) climate dataset provides historical and projected climate surfaces for the state at a 270 meter resolution. The historical data is based on 4 kilometer PRISM data, and the projected climate surfaces are based on the A2 and B1 scenarios of the PCM and...
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This dataset represents Runoff change, from Basin Characterization Model (BCM) output using the PCM A2 Scenario in central Sierra Nevada California, for 2040-2069. The data was processed using historic Runoff (1979-2000) and Runoff (2040-2069) to calculate change. Runoff: Amount of water that becomes stream flow, summed annually. Modeled as amount of water that exceeds total soil storage and rejected recharge. The California Basin Characterization Model (BCM) climate dataset provides historical and projected climate surfaces for the state at a 270 meter resolution. The historical data is based on 4 kilometer PRISM data, and the projected climate surfaces are based on the A2 and B1 scenarios of the PCM and GFDL...
Summary Human activities have historically affected hydrology in the upper Midwestern United States, specifically through the conversion of forests and prairie grasslands to agricultural uses. The hydrologic impacts of land-use change due to settlement on the water balance of three Great Lakes states: Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan were analyzed using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) large-scale hydrology model, and changes in the spatial distribution of vegetation types were studied. Point model simulations demonstrated that the VIC model simulated changes in average annual and monthly evapotranspiration (ET) and total runoff response were in the same direction and had similar magnitudes to values from...
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This dataset is a Basin Characterization Model (BCM) output using the GFDL A2 Scenario for average Spring (March, April, May) snowpack change, 2010-2039, clipped to the Sierra Nevada Zone for CA LCC. Snowpack: Amount of snow accumulated per month summed annually, or if divided by 12 average monthly snowpack. This is calculated as prior month's snowpack plus snowfall minus sublimation and snow melt.Snowpack change was calculated using GFDL A2 scenario 2010-2039 minus Historic Snowpack 1971-2000. The California Basin Characterization Model (BCM) climate dataset provides historical and projected climate surfaces for the state at a 270 meter resolution. The historical data is based on 4 kilometer PRISM data, and the...


map background search result map search result map GFDL A2 Scenario Average Spring Snowpack Change, Sierra Nevada, 2010-2039 GFDL A2 Runoff Change, Southern Sierra Nevada California, 2070-2099 PCM A2 Runoff Change, Central Sierra Nevada California, 2040-2069 PCM A2 Scenario Annual Recharge, DRECP, 2010-2039 GFDL A2 Scenario Climatic Water Deficit, Southern Sierra Nevada California, 2010-2039 PCM A2 Scenario Average Spring Snowpack, DRECP, 2010-2039 Historic Average Spring Snowpack, DRECP,1971-2000 PCM A2 Scenario Climatic Water Deficit, Southern Sierra Nevada California, 2010-2039 PCM A2 Scenario Annual Climatic Water Deficit, DRECP, 2070-2099 PCM A2 Scenario Average Spring Snowpack, Central Sierra Nevada California, 2040-2069 GFDL A2 Scenario Climatic Water Deficit, Central Sierra Nevada California, 2070-2099 PCM A2 Scenario Average Spring Snowpack, Southern Sierra Nevada California, 2010-2039 PCM A2 Scenario Average Winter Snowpack, Northern Sierra Nevada California, 2070-2099 PCM A2 Scenario Average Spring Snowpack, Central Sierra Nevada California, 2040-2069 PCM A2 Runoff Change, Central Sierra Nevada California, 2040-2069 GFDL A2 Scenario Climatic Water Deficit, Central Sierra Nevada California, 2070-2099 PCM A2 Scenario Average Winter Snowpack, Northern Sierra Nevada California, 2070-2099 PCM A2 Scenario Average Spring Snowpack, Southern Sierra Nevada California, 2010-2039 GFDL A2 Runoff Change, Southern Sierra Nevada California, 2070-2099 GFDL A2 Scenario Climatic Water Deficit, Southern Sierra Nevada California, 2010-2039 PCM A2 Scenario Climatic Water Deficit, Southern Sierra Nevada California, 2010-2039 PCM A2 Scenario Annual Climatic Water Deficit, DRECP, 2070-2099 PCM A2 Scenario Annual Recharge, DRECP, 2010-2039 PCM A2 Scenario Average Spring Snowpack, DRECP, 2010-2039 Historic Average Spring Snowpack, DRECP,1971-2000 GFDL A2 Scenario Average Spring Snowpack Change, Sierra Nevada, 2010-2039