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The strong impact of non-native predators in aquatic systems is thought to relate to the evolutionary naiveté of prey. Due to isolation and limited dispersal, this naiveté may be relatively high in freshwater systems. In this study, we tested this notion by examining the antipredator response of native mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, to two non-native predators found in the Everglades, the African jewelfish,Hemichromis letourneuxi, and the Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus. We manipulated prey naiveté by using two mosquitofish populations that varied in their experience with the recent invader, the African jewelfish, but had similar levels of experience with the longer-established Mayan cichlid. Specifically,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ethology
In this study, we describe patterns of relatedness in Gunnison’s prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni) social groups. Kin selection is often cited as a mechanism for the evolution and maintenance of social groups, and Gunnison’s prairie dog females are occasionally described as being strongly philopatric. Overall, randomization tests revealed that females within territorial groups were not more closely related to each other than expected at random. A similar pattern was found among males and between males and females, indicating that there was no sex-biased dispersal occurring in these populations. Ecological variables measured in this study, such as food abundance and food dispersion, were not correlated with relatedness....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Ethology
This dataset includes the behavioral responses to a broadband sound for common carp in an outdoor concrete pond. Broadband sound (0.06 to 10 kHz) has shown potential as an acoustic deterrent for bigheaded carps, but the response of common carp to broadband sound has not been evaluated. Since common carp are ostariophysians, possessing Weberian ossicles similar to bigheaded carps, it is possible that sound can be used as an acoustical deterrent for all three species.
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Previous studies have demonstrated several reproductive-behavior patterns in male salmon, including competitive and sneaking tactics, the formation of hierarchies, and non-hierarchical aggregations around ripe females. Through behavioral observations at varying spatial and temporal scales, we examined the hypothesis that operational sex ratio (OSR) determines male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) distribution and breeding tactics. Patterns of male distribution and behavior varied over both coarse and fine scales, associated with apparent shifts in reproductive opportunities, the physical characteristics of the breeding sites, and the deterioration of the fish as they approached death. Females spawned completely...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ethology
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Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are gregarious carnivores that defend group territories against encroachment by neighboring conspecifics. Here we monitored the behavior of members of one clan of free-ranging spotted hyenas during border patrols, ‘wars’ with neighboring clans, and other interactions with alien intruders, to document differences between the sexes in territorial behavior in this species. We also examined the possibility that the probability or rate of attack on alien hyenas encountered within the clan’s territory would vary with the sex of the intruders. Initiation and leadership of most cooperative territorial behaviors were by adult female clan members, although border patrols were occasionally...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ethology
I studied desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, nelsoni) behavior and habitat use in response to boating activities during 1985. The percent of total observed time in attention behavior before the boating season, during the boating season, and while riverboats were < 0.8 km from bighorn sheep groups was 1, 1.4, and 12.2, respectively. Estimated energy expenditure did not significantly differ for high riverboat pressures (p > 0.2) or seasonal comparisons (p > 0.1). Habitat use significantly differed for proximity to the river, which was probably related to the summer use of the river for drinking. Moderate, minor, and no responses to passing riverboats were observed 3, 39, s and 58%, respectively. Responses to riverboats...
Since the Modern Synthesis, many species concepts have considered characters mediating mate recognition essential to both the identification and definition of species. To explore divergence in mate recognition systems, calls were recorded and toads measured from all three species of the monophyletic Bufo microscaphus species complex including five populations of Bufo californicus, three populations of B. microscaphus, and one population of B. mexicanus. Call duration, dominant frequency, and pulse rate were significantly related to temperature, but not snout-vent length. When adjusted for temperature, calls of B. californicus had a significantly longer call duration, higher dominant frequency, and slower pulse rate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Ethology
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The tiny (3.1–3.8 g) vespcrtilionid bat Pipistrellus nanus was studied in Kenya palm-thatched roofs from May 1973 to July 1974. Roosting social organization and related activities and behavior are described. ♂♂ held diurnal roosting territories where ♀♀ gathered in small and compositionally labile groups, attracted to the most vocal ♂♂. Annual variation in population-wide aspects of social organization follows predictable seasonal changes in climate and predator abundance. Variability between individuals follows a common mammalian pattern: high male competition for ♀, variance in presumed male reproductive success, and a mating system resembling one based on resource defense polygyny. Social organization in this...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ethology
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Selective defecation and selective foraging are two potential antiparasite behaviors used by grazing ungulates to reduce infection by fecal-oral transmitted parasites. While there is some evidence that domestic species use these strategies, less is known about the occurrence and efficacy of these behaviors in wild ungulates. In this study, I examined whether wild antelope use selective defecation and selective foraging strategies to reduce exposure to gastrointestinal nematode parasites. By quantifying parasite levels in the environment in relation to the defecation patterns of three species, dik-dik (Madoqua kirkii), Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti), and impala (Aepyceros melampus), I found that nematode larval...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ethology
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Grooming is a common animal behavior that aids in ectoparasite defense. Ectoparasites can stimulate grooming, and natural selection can also favor endogenous mechanisms that evoke periodic bouts of “programmed” grooming to dislodge or kill ectoparasites before they bite or feed. Moreover, grooming can function as a displacement or communication behavior. We compared the grooming behaviors of adult female black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on colonies with or without flea control via pulicide dust. Roughly 91% of the prairie dogs sampled on the non-dusted colony carried at least one flea, whereas we did not find fleas on two dusted colonies. During focal observations, prairie dogs on the non-dusted...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ethology


map background search result map search result map Roosting, social organization and the annual cycle in a Kenya population of the bat <i>Pipistrellus nanus</i> Roosting, social organization and the annual cycle in a Kenya population of the bat <i>Pipistrellus nanus</i>