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Rates and styles of landslide motion are sensitive to pore-water pressure changes caused by changes in soil porosity accompanying shear deformation. Soil may either contract or dilate upon shearing, depending upon whether its initial porosity is greater or less, respectively, than a critical-state porosity attained after sufficiently high strain. We observed complications in this behavior, however, during rate-controlled (0.02 m s−1) ring-shear experiments conducted on naturally aggregated dense loamy sand at low confining stresses (10.6 and 40 kPa). The aggregated soil first dilated and then contracted to porosities less than initial values, whereas the same soil with its aggregates destroyed monotonically dilated....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Engineering Geology
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A review of the scientific issues relevant to characterizing earthquake sources in the New Madrid seismic zone has led to the development of a logic tree of possible alternative parameters. A variability analysis, using Monte Carlo sampling of this consensus logic tree, is presented and discussed. The analysis shows that for 2%-exceedence-in-50-year hazard, the best-estimate seismic hazard map is similar to previously published seismic hazard maps for the area. For peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration at 0.2 and 1.0 s (0.2 and 1.0 s Sa), the coefficient of variation (COV) representing the knowledge-based uncertainty in seismic hazard can exceed 0.6 over the New Madrid seismic zone and diminishes...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Engineering Geology
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The greatest impediments to the widespread acceptance of back-calculated ground motion characteristics from paleoliquefaction studies typically stem from three uncertainties: (1) the significance of changes in the geotechnical properties of post-liquefied sediments (e.g., "aging" and density changes), (2) the selection of appropriate geotechnical soil indices from individual paleoliquefaction sites, and (3) the methodology for integration of back-calculated results of strength of shaking from individual paleoliquefaction sites into a regional assessment of paleoseismic strength of shaking. Presented herein are two case studies that illustrate the methods outlined by Olson et al. [Engineering Geology, this issue]...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Engineering Geology
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Sand- and gravel-filled clastic dikes of seismic liquefaction origin occur throughout much of southern Indiana and Illinois. Nearly all of these dikes originated from prehistoric earthquakes centered in the study area. In this area at least seven and probably eight strong prehistoric earthquakes have been documented as occurring during the Holocene, and at least one during the latest Pleistocene. The recognition of different earthquakes has been based mainly on timing of liquefaction in combination with the regional pattern of liquefaction effects, but some have been recognized only by geotechnical testing at sites of liquefaction. Most paleo-earthquakes presently recognized lie in Indiana, but equally as many may...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Engineering Geology
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The 1989 Loma Prieta, California earthquake (moment magnitude, M=6.9) generated landslides throughout an area of about 15,000 km2 in central California. Most of these landslides occurred in an area of about 2000 km2 in the mountainous terrain around the epicenter, where they were mapped during field investigations immediately following the earthquake. The distribution of these landslides is investigated statistically, using regression and one-way analysisof variance (ANOVA) techniques to determine how the occurrence of landslides correlates with distance from the earthquake source, slope steepness, and rock type. The landslide concentration (defined as the number of landslide sources per unit area) has a strong...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Engineering Geology
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Staff from Alaska Earthquake Center, Geophysical Institute and Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys evaluated potential tsunami hazards for the city of Sand Point, on Popof Island in the Shumagin Islands archipelago. We numerically modeled the extent of inundation from tsunami waves generated by local and distant earthquake sources. We considered the results in light of historical observations. The worst-case scenarios are defined by analyzing results of the sensitivity study of the tsunami dynamics with respect to different slip distributions along the Aleutian megathrust. For the Sand Point area, the worst-case scenarios are thought to be thrust earthquakes in the Shumagin Islands region with magnitudes...
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The State of Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys acquired photogrammetric digital surface models (DSMs) and co-registered orthorectified aerial images (orthoimages) for the west coast of Alaska in support of coastal vulnerability mapping efforts. This report is a summary of the data collected over 26 developed areas along approximately 3,500 km of coastline in the Bering Sea, Norton Sound, and Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta regions (fig. 1). Aerial photographs were collected between July 31 and September 6, 2015, and processed using Structure from- Motion (SfM) photogrammetry techniques. Ground control points (GCPs) and checkpoints were collected in support of these data products during a Global Navigation...
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Potential tsunami hazards for the Fox Islands communities of Unalaska/Dutch Harbor and Akutan were evaluated by numerically modeling the extent of inundation from tsunami waves generated by hypothetical earthquake sources and taking into account historical observations. Worst-case hypothetical scenarios are defined by analyzing results of a sensitivity study of the tsunami dynamics related to various slip distributions along the Aleutian megathrust. The worst-case scenarios for Unalaska and Akutan are thought to be thrust earthquakes in the Fox Islands region with magnitudes ranging from Mw 8.8 to Mw 9.1 that have their greatest slip at 30-40 km (18-25 mi) depth. We also consider Tohoku-type ruptures and an outer-rise...
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate tsunami hazard for the community of Seward and northern Resurrection Bay area, Alaska. This report will provide guidance to local emergency managers in tsunami hazard assessment. We used a numerical modeling method to estimate the extent of inundation by tsunami waves generated from earthquake and landslide sources. Our tsunami scenarios included a repeat of the tsunami of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake, as well as tsunami waves generated by two hypothetical Yakataga Gap earthquakes in northeastern Gulf of Alaska, hypothetical earthquakes in Prince William Sound and Kodiak asperities of the 1964 rupture, and local underwater landslides in Resurrection Bay. Results of numerical...
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During 2009, the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys continued a program, begun in 2006, of reconnaissance mapping of surficial geology in the proposed natural-gas pipeline corridor through the upper Tanana River valley. The study area is a 12-mi-wide (19.3-km-wide) area that straddles the Alaska Highway from the western boundaries of the Tanacross B-3 and A-3 quadrangles near Tetlin Junction eastward to the eastern boundaries of the Nabesna D-1 and C-1 quadrangles along the Canada border. Mapping during 2008-2009 in the Tanacross and Nabesna quadrangles linked with the mapping completed in the Tanacross, Big Delta and Mt. Hayes quadrangles in 2006-2008. Surficial geology was initially mapped in...
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The Geologic Map Index of Alaska (Map Index) is an online, interactive web mapping application that provides access to an actively growing geographic index of geology-related maps of Alaska and adjacent areas. This online research tool provides the locations and outlines of most DGGS and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geologic and geophysical maps of Alaska in a single, interactive web map. It allows searches of the map database by geographic area of interest, keywords, themes, publishing agency, dates, and other criteria. The search results provide links to DGGS's comprehensive, multi-agency publications database, where users may view and download publications for free. No other geographic index of Alaska geologic...
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The 'Vulture: 1988 Construction Bids' file is part of the A. F. Budge Mining Ltd. Mining collection. A. F. Budge Mining Ltd., a British company owned by Tony Budge, controlled properties across several western U. S. states and northern Mexico. The company was active in Arizona during the 1980s and into the early 1990s. The collection consists of economic geologic information including maps, logs, reports and records. A few properties make up most of the collection: Vulture, United Verde Extension and Korn Kob.
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The 'UVX: Headframe and Hoisting Machinery' file is part of the A. F. Budge Mining Ltd. Mining collection. A. F. Budge Mining Ltd., a British company owned by Tony Budge, controlled properties across several western U. S. states and northern Mexico. The company was active in Arizona during the 1980s and into the early 1990s. The collection consists of economic geologic information including maps, logs, reports and records. A few properties make up most of the collection: Vulture, United Verde Extension and Korn Kob.
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An updated version of the catalog that was used for the current national probabilistic seismic-hazard maps would suffice for production of large-scale hazard maps of the Memphis urban area. Deaggregation maps provide guidance as to the area that a catalog for calculating Memphis hazard should cover. For the future, the Nuttli and local network catalogs could be examined for earthquakes not presently included in the catalog. Additional work on aftershock removal might reduce hazard uncertainty. Graphs of decadal and annual earthquake rates suggest completeness at and above magnitude 3 for the last three or four decades. Any additional work on completeness should consider the effects of rapid, local population changes...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Engineering Geology
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A detailed and accurate landslide inventory is an essential part of seismic landslide hazard analysis. An ideal inventory would cover the entire area affected by an earthquake and include all of the landslides that are possible to detect down to sizes of 1-5. m in length. The landslides must also be located accurately and mapped as polygons depicting their true shapes. Such mapped landslide distributions can then be used to perform seismic landslide hazard analysis and other quantitative analyses. Detailed inventory maps of landslide triggered by earthquakes began in the early 1960s with the use of aerial photography. In recent years, advances in technology have resulted in the accessibility of satellite imagery...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Engineering Geology
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During the twentieth century, several methods to assess the stability of slopes during earthquakes were developed. Pseudostatic analysis was the earliest method; it involved simply adding a permanent body force representing the earthquake shaking to a static limit-equilibrium analysis. Stress-deformation analysis, a later development, involved much more complex modeling of slopes using a mesh in which the internal stresses and strains within elements are computed based on the applied external loads, including gravity and seismic loads. Stress-deformation analysis provided the most realistic model of slope behavior, but it is very complex and requires a high density of high-quality soil-property data as well as an...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Engineering Geology
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Damaging landslides in the Appalachian Plateau and scattered regions within the Midcontinent of North America highlight the need for landslide-hazard mapping and a better understanding of the geomorphic development of landslide terrains. The Plateau and Midcontinent have the necessary ingredients for landslides including sufficient relief, steep slope gradients, Pennsylvanian and Permian cyclothems that weather into fine-grained soils containing considerable clay, and adequate precipitation. One commonly used parameter in landslide-hazard analysis that is in need of further investigation is plan curvature. Plan curvature is the curvature of the hillside in a horizontal plane or the curvature of the contours on a...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Engineering Geology
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Vertical seismic compressional- and shear-wave (P- and S-wave) profiles were collected from three shallow boreholes in sediment of the upper Mississippi embayment. The site of the 60-m hole at Shelby Forest, Tennessee, is on bluffs forming the eastern edge of the Mississippi alluvial plain. The bluffs are composed of Pleistocene loess, Pliocene-Pleistocene alluvial clay and sand deposits, and Tertiary deltaic-marine sediment. The 36-m hole at Marked Tree, Arkansas, and the 27-m hole at Risco, Missouri, are in Holocene Mississippi river floodplain sand, silt, and gravel deposits. At each site, impulsive P- and S-waves were generated by man-made sources at the surface while a three-component geophone was locked downhole...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Engineering Geology


map background search result map search result map Vulture: 1988 Construction Bids UVX: Headframe and Hoisting Machinery Geologic Map Index of Alaska Engineering-geologic map of the Alaska Highway corridor, Tetlin Junction to Canada border, Alaska Photogrammetric digital surface models and orthoimagery for 26 coastal communities of western Alaska Tsunami inundation maps of Seward and northern Resurrection Bay, Alaska Tsunami inundation maps of Fox Islands communities, including Dutch Harbor and Akutan, Alaska Tsunami inundation maps for the city of Sand Point, Alaska Tsunami inundation maps for the city of Sand Point, Alaska Tsunami inundation maps of Seward and northern Resurrection Bay, Alaska Photogrammetric digital surface models and orthoimagery for 26 coastal communities of western Alaska Engineering-geologic map of the Alaska Highway corridor, Tetlin Junction to Canada border, Alaska Geologic Map Index of Alaska