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In this paper we review conceptual arguments and empirical evidence related to two potential sources of market failure involving energy security. In doing so we consider several questions involving the distinction between externality and market inefficiency, and the distinction between market failures that are amenable or not amenable to correction given our current understanding of the workings of an economy. Several conclusions follow from our analysis regarding the potential sources of market failure and possible remedies. The problem of excess wealth transfer from exporter market power may be an issue, but current knowledge of oil market behaviour is too weak to support a strong conclusion. Other supposed costs...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Energy security, Oil price shock
Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference ‘Energy for all—Financing access for the poor’ held in Oslo in October 2011.
This paper analyzes the co-benefits of transport sector electrification in terms of reductions of greenhouse gas and local environmental emissions, improvement in energy security and employment generation during 2015–2050 in the case of Nepal—a developing country with large hydropower potential. A bottom up energy system model of Nepal based on the MARKAL framework was developed to assess the effects of meeting a part of the land transport service demand through electrified mass transport system and electric vehicles. The present study shows that if the share of electricity based transport services is to grow from 10% in 2015 to 35% by 2050, the hydropower generation capacity would have to increase by 495 MW by...
Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped...
We would like to thank Sovacool et al. for engaging our recent work, however, we feel their criticisms are primarily directed at the claims of carbon capture and storage technology, which was not addressed in our analysis. The intent of our original analysis was to provide a systematic approach to judge the most efficient use of coal resources as a method for addressing the problem of foreign oil dependence. We have attempted to separate this discussion involving the most effective use of a resource from a discussion of the desirability of using the resource at all, which we feel is a separate issue.
We would like to thank Sovacool et al. for engaging our recent work, however, we feel their criticisms are primarily directed at the claims of carbon capture and storage technology, which was not addressed in our analysis. The intent of our original analysis was to provide a systematic approach to judge the most efficient use of coal resources as a method for addressing the problem of foreign oil dependence. We have attempted to separate this discussion involving the most effective use of a resource from a discussion of the desirability of using the resource at all, which we feel is a separate issue.
This paper analyzes the co-benefits of transport sector electrification in terms of reductions of greenhouse gas and local environmental emissions, improvement in energy security and employment generation during 2015–2050 in the case of Nepal—a developing country with large hydropower potential. A bottom up energy system model of Nepal based on the MARKAL framework was developed to assess the effects of meeting a part of the land transport service demand through electrified mass transport system and electric vehicles. The present study shows that if the share of electricity based transport services is to grow from 10% in 2015 to 35% by 2050, the hydropower generation capacity would have to increase by 495 MW by...
This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of ‘disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and Institutional constraints which could affect geothermal...
Because of the inevitable depletion of fossil fuels and the corresponding release of carbon to the environment, the global energy future is complex. Some of the consequences may be politically and economically disruptive, and expensive to remedy. For the next several centuries, fuel requirements will increase with population, land use, and ecosystem degradation. Current or projected levels of aggregated energy resource use will not sustain civilization as we know it beyond a few more generations. At the same time, issues of energy security, reliability, sustainability, recoverability, and safety need attention. We supply a top-down, qualitative model—the surety model—to balance expenditures of limited resources...
Present woodfuel usage in Britain is negligible. Historically, Britain has been fortunate in having abundant coal, oil and gas. At an EU level, biomass is seen as an important element of energy, environment and agriculture/forestry policy. In the European context, biomass is taken to include agricultural and industrial wastes in addition to forest woodfuel, and it is regarded as a potential source of heat, fuels and electricity. In the UK, energy policy as a whole is based on four considerations--environment, energy reliability and security, affordability for the poorest in society and competitive pricing for businesses, industries and households. Within UK policy, the dominant driver for greater use of biomass...
In many ways, the mountain west (Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming) is an energy colony for the rest of the United States: it is rich in energy resources that are extracted to fuel economic growth in the wealthier and more populous coastal regions. Federal agencies and global corporations often behave as if the mountain west is a place to be exploited or managed for the benefit of customers and consumers elsewhere. Yet, the area. is not vast empty space with a limitless supply of natural resources, but rather a fast-growing region with a diverse economic base dependent on a limited supply of water. New decision processes and collaborations are slowly changing this situation,...
This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of ‘disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and Institutional constraints which could affect geothermal...
Reliance on oil as an energy source for private transportation produces increasingly unfavorable social, political and environmental conditions including climate change, dependence on foreign oil, and the need for difficult choices between oil production and protection of biological systems. At the same time, the population is increasingly sedentary due largely to our reliance on the automobile for transportation. Adoption and maintenance of healthy weights and healthier lifestyles by substituting walking or biking for short trips currently taken by car could simultaneously improve health and reduce oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. We calculate the reduction in oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions...
Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference ‘Energy for all—Financing access for the poor’ held in Oslo in October 2011.
The Southern Appalachian forest region of the U.S.-a region responsible for 23% of U.S. coal production-has 24 billion metric tons of high quality coal remaining of which mountaintop coal mining (MCM) will be the primary extraction method. Here we consider greenhouse gas emissions associated with MCM terrestrial disturbance in the life-cycle of coal energy production. We estimate disturbed forest carbon, including terrestrial soil and nonsoil carbon using published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data of the forest floor removed and U.S. Department of Agriculture - Forest Service inventory data. We estimate the amount of previously buried geogenic organic carbon brought to the soil surface during MCM using...
This paper analyzes the co-benefits of transport sector electrification in terms of reductions of greenhouse gas and local environmental emissions, improvement in energy security and employment generation during 2015–2050 in the case of Nepal—a developing country with large hydropower potential. A bottom up energy system model of Nepal based on the MARKAL framework was developed to assess the effects of meeting a part of the land transport service demand through electrified mass transport system and electric vehicles. The present study shows that if the share of electricity based transport services is to grow from 10% in 2015 to 35% by 2050, the hydropower generation capacity would have to increase by 495 MW by...
In order to step up its efforts in reducing climate change, the European Commission (hereafter: the Commission) has launched in June 2000 its European climate change program (hereafter: ECCP). This wide-ranging stakeholder consultation aimed at identifying and developing all elements necessary for a European climate change strategy. The ECCP formally came to a close in April 2003. This paper analyses the inner workings of ECCP, and how ECCP has delivered with regard to its objectives. Special attention is paid to ECCP's Working Group 1, "Flexible Mechanisms", which developed the foundations for the European emission trading scheme (hereafter: EU ETS). The paper draws on documents published on the Commission's ECCP...
Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped...