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To investigate whether Northern Goshawk textit(Accipiter gentilis) reproduction is food-limited, we evaluated the reproductive output from 401 goshawk breeding opportunities on the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona during 1999-2002. Concurrently, we estimated densities of 10 goshawk prey species (seven birds, three mammals) using distance sampling. We then assessed the relationship between goshawk productivity (number of fledglings produced) and prey density within and among years by relating the contribution of individual prey species and total prey density to goshawk productivity. We also estimated the proportion of total diet and biomass for each species that contributed ?3% of all prey items. Total prey density was highly...
Observers at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge recorded the use by birds of koa (Acacia koa) and ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) trees in two sites that were recovering from ungulate disturbance and two reforestation sites where trees had been planted. Observations were made pre- and post-defoliation of koa trees by koa moths (Scotorythra paludicola) during 2013. Focal trees at each site were selected haphazardly and observed for 2 minutes to determine the total number individual birds that visited the tree. Birds were counted when they were already present or as they flew into a tree during the 2-minute period, regardless of whether they departed before the end of the observation period. Birds were identified...
Bird banding at 2 locations adjacent to one another (one in koa restoration forest, and other in native intact forest) at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge before and after the start of an outbreak by koa moths (Scotorythra paludicola) during 2013. Each bird was measured with an electronic scale accurate to 1/10th g. Results indicate that insectivorous birds increased in mass, on average, while generalist diet species showed marginally significant increases, and two out of three nectarivorous and frugivorous birds did not have significant change.
We investigated the bioavailability via diet of spiked benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-52) from different carbonaceous (non-carbonate, carbon containing) particle types to clams (Macoma balthica) collected from San Francisco Bay. Our results reveal significant differences in absorption efficiency between compounds and among carbonaceous particle types. Absorption efficiency for PCB-52 was always greater than that for BaP bound to a given particle type. Among particles, absorption efficiency was highest from wood and diatoms and lowest from activated carbon. Large differences in absorption efficiency could not be simply explained by comparatively small differences in the particles' total...
Advancements in ancient DNA analyses now permit comparative molecular and morphological studies of extinct animal dung commonly preserved in caves of semiarid regions. These new techniques are showcased using a unique dung deposit preserved in a late glacial vizcacha (Lagidium sp.) midden from a limestone cave in southwestern Argentina (38.5° S). Phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial DNA show that the dung originated from a small ground sloth species not yet represented by skeletal material in the region, and not closely related to any of the four previously sequenced extinct and extant sloth species. Analyses of pollen and plant cuticles, as well as analyses of the chloroplast DNA, show that the Cuchillo Curá...
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This dataset provides information on fish species composition and their diet information for 16 lakes and 16 ponds at two locations on the central Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska. In one table, we provide the presence of fish species and the total species count for each lake or pond sampled. This table also includes metrics of surface water connectivity to the stream network. In a second table, stomach content information is provided for fish collected during summer sampling periods (late June to mid-August) over three years (2011–2013). The third table includes stable carbon isotope and stable nitrogen isotope signature data for fish species and snails (the baseline organism) from 16 water bodies at one study location...
We studied Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) diets and the relative abundance and habitat associations of major prey species in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)-Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) forest in north-central Arizona, USA, from 1990 to 1993. The owl's diet was comprised of 94% mammals by biomass and consisted of primarily the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), brush mouse (P boylii), Mexican woodrat (Neotoma mexicana), and Mexican vole (Microtus mexicanus). Spotted owl prey in our study area were smaller on average than prey in other locations, and the total biomass of potential prey was less than that reported in other areas within the owl's geographic range. Although all prey populations...
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These data were compiled to explore the foraging ecology of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona. These data represent samples characterizing the availability of drifting invertebrate prey (hereafter, drift) and use of these invertebrate prey by rainbow trout determined by gut samples (hereafter, diets). Drift and diet sampling occurred in five distinct reaches downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (river kilometer (rkm) from the dam): (I) rkm 16.3-21.7; (II) rkm 52.8-58.3; (III) rkm 86.6-91.9; (IV) rkm 122.0-123.6; and (V) rkm 127.1-129.6. Samples were taken on 12 trips in April, July, September and January from April 2012 through January 2015. The aquatic prey base consists...
Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals,...
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Habitat use, diet, prey availability and foraging ecology of the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus, Vespertilionidae), was examined in the east Maui region inclusive of the Waihou Mitigation Area, Pu‘u Makua Restoration Area and the wind power facility operated by Auwahi Wind Energy, LLC. The study was conducted to inform the mitigation and management requirements of Auwahi Wind Energy, research funding was provided by Auwahi Wind Energy, LLC (Auwahi Wind) to fulfill requirements for mitigating bat fatalities under its approved incidental take permit. This study included the first genetic analysis of Hawaiian hoary bat diet items, and broadly confirms the major arthropod orders (Coleoptera,...
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These data provide observations of food items observed held by anterior foot of black abalone (presumably for feeding) at 9 different sites in the rocky intertidal zone around San Nicolas Island, California. Observations were made at low tide while censusing the population on permanently marked transects over a 26 year time period. Also included are some associated abalone size data.
This investigation evaluated effects of exposure of larval razorback sucker to waterborne and dietary selenium and other contaminants that occur in nursery habitats. Site waters were collected from three localities on the Colorado River near Grand Junction, CO; a total of five test waters (including control) were studied. Razorback sucker larvae were exposed to site-water contaminants via waterborne and dietary exposure using a laboratory food chain (algae, rotifer, razorback sucker). Fish were exposed for 28 days to site waters and food organisms cultured in site waters. Survival data were analyzed by inspection. Growth data were analyzed using analysis of variance to describe the response of fish in each site...
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Habitat use, diet, prey availability and foraging ecology of the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus, Vespertilionidae) were examined in the east Maui region inclusive of the Waihou Mitigation Area, Pu'u Makua Restoration Area and the wind power facility operated by Auwahi Wind Energy, LLC. The study was conducted to inform the mitigation and management requirements of Auwahi Wind Energy, and fulfill requirements for mitigating bat fatalities under its approved incidental take permit. Acoustic monitoring over the three-year period demonstrated that bats are present and actively feed year-round at the Waihou Mitigation Area. This study included the first genetic analysis of Hawaiian hoary bat...
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The Eastern Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis) is a large-bodied seabird that nests in colonies of 10 to upwards of 5,000 pairs, on nearshore islands in subtropical and tropical North American waters. It breeds between March and August, laying 2–3 eggs and raising 1–2 chicks per year. The species is facultatively migratory during nonbreeding, with some individuals remaining resident and others leaving breeding areas. Pelicans forage in near- and offshore waters and capture schooling fish by plunge-diving. This dataset summarizes diet composition and mass of meals delivered to chicks throughout the chick-rearing period, from hatch (late April) through fledging (early August) in 10 breeding colonies...


map background search result map search result map Composition of diet of juvenile Brown Pelican in the northern Gulf of Mexico (2013-2015) Fish Species Composition and Diet Information in Lakes of the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska, 2011-2013 Waihou Mitigation Area, Maui Island, bat acoustic activity, diet and prey availability, 2015 to 2018 Waihou Insect Count Data 2016 and 2017 San Nicolas Island California black abalone feeding observations, 1982-2019 Rainbow trout diet and invertebrate drift data from 2012-2015 for the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona Change in mass of birds pre- and post-koa moth outbreak, Hawaii Island, 2013-2014 Patterns of tree use by birds pre- and post-koa moth outbreak, Hawaii Island, 2013-2014 Waihou Mitigation Area, Maui Island, bat acoustic activity, diet and prey availability, 2015 to 2018 Waihou Insect Count Data 2016 and 2017 Change in mass of birds pre- and post-koa moth outbreak, Hawaii Island, 2013-2014 Patterns of tree use by birds pre- and post-koa moth outbreak, Hawaii Island, 2013-2014 San Nicolas Island California black abalone feeding observations, 1982-2019 Fish Species Composition and Diet Information in Lakes of the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska, 2011-2013 Rainbow trout diet and invertebrate drift data from 2012-2015 for the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona Composition of diet of juvenile Brown Pelican in the northern Gulf of Mexico (2013-2015)