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Non-native shrub species in the genus Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk) have colonized hundreds of thousands of hectares of floodplains, reservoir margins, and other wetlands in western North America. Many resource managers seek to reduce saltcedar abundance and control its spread to increase the flow of water in streams that might otherwise be lost to evapotranspiration, to restore native riparian (streamside) vegetation, and to improve wildlife habitat. However, increased water yield might not always occur and has been substantially lower than expected in water salvage experiments, the potential for successful revegetation is variable, and not all wildlife taxa clearly prefer native plant habitats over saltcedar....
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We developed and applied a simple population model to examine the relation between abundance of wolves in a wilderness area and the numbers that emigrate into adjacent agricultural areas and that may need to be removed on an annual basis. The model was applied using Minnesota wolf (Canis lupus) data. The gray wolf is emigrating from northern wilderness areas in the State of Minnesota (USA) into adjacent agricultural and urban areas to the south, and the costs of both wolf control and compensation to farmers for lost livestock is increasing as the number of wolves increases. Emigration reduces the number of wolves on a refuge to about 85% of the carrying capacity, and the number of wolves that emigrate into the agricultural...


    map background search result map search result map Modeling emigration of wolves from a wilderness area into adjacent agricultural regions Modeling emigration of wolves from a wilderness area into adjacent agricultural regions