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A seminal question in ecotoxicology is the extent to which contaminant exposure evokes prolonged effects on physiological function and fitness. A series of studies were undertaken with American kestrels ingesting environmentally realistic concentrations of the second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide (SGAR) brodifacoum (BROD). Kestrels fed BROD at 0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 µg/g diet wet wt for 7 d exhibited dose-dependent hemorrhage, histopathological lesions and coagulopathy (prolonged prothrombin and Russell’s viper venom times). Following termination of a 7 d exposure to 0.5 µg BROD/g diet, prolonged blood clotting time returned to baseline values within a week, but BROD residues in liver and kidney (terminal half-life...
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A heterologous thrombin clotting time assay (TCT) was used to measure the time for conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin using commercially available reagents. Human reference material included in the kit was diluted with imidazole buffered saline (IBS; 0.0125M imidazole-0.109 M sodium chloride, pH7.4) to generate a standard curve. Each kestrel plasma sample was thawed at 37ºC and diluted with IBS, and following incubation at 37ºC, the reaction was then initiated by the addition of bovine thrombin reagent supplied with the assay kit, with clotting time measured to 0.1 s. Fibrinogen concentration was determined in a single assay for each of the 3 study trials, with reference samples interspersed among study samples....
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Range finding trial in which kestrels were fed diets containing varying quantities of brodifacoum and signs of intoxication were monitored.
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- Observations and treatment of various species of raptorial birds admitted to a rehabilitation facility, and of nestling barn owls observed and sampled in the field - Clotting time parameters (prothrombin time, Russell’s viper venom time, fibrinogen concentration) - Anticoagulant rodenticide residue data
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Trial examining blood clotting function response in kestrels initially fed a diet containing chlorophacinone (CPN) or brodifacoum (BROD), and following a recovery period, kestrels were challenged with a diet containing chlorophacinone. Kestrels received two 25 ± 0.1 g NBP meatballs daily for a 7-day period containing either vehicle, 1.5 µg CPN/g wet wt diet (i.e., 1.5 ppm chlorophacinone) or 0.5 µg brodifacoum/g wet wt (i.e., 0.5 ppm brodifacoum) during an initial exposure phase. Following 7 day recovery period, these kestrels were then fed 0.75 µg CPN/g wet wt diet (i.e., 0.75 ppm chlorophacinone) for a 7 day challenge exposure phase. Hereafter, these groups are designated control-chlorophacinone challenge (CON-CPN),...
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Citrated plasma samples were sent to the University of Miami Avian and Wildlife Laboratory for clinical determination of total protein, plasma electrophoresis (pre-albumin, albumin, alpha 1 globulins, alpha 2 globulins, beta globulins, gamma globulins) and aspartate aminotransferase and creatine phosphokinase activities.
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Trial in which coagulopathy and the time course of recovery of clotting function was determined in kestrels fed a diet containing brodifacoum.
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-Test subject identification information (sample collection site and date, test subject identification number, and sample number) -Clotting time parameters and comments (prothrombin time, Russell’s viper venom time, fibrinogen concentration, and coefficient of variation for replicate analyses)


    map background search result map search result map Use of blood clotting assays to assess anticoagulant rodenticide exposure and effects in free-ranging birds of prey Brodifacoum toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) with evidence of increased hazard upon subsequent anticoagulant rodenticide exposure 1. Results of Trial 1 2. Results of trial 2 3. Results of trial 3 4. Results of Blood Clotting Assays 5. Results of Trial 3 Blood Chemistry Analysis Assessing Exposure, Physiological Effects, and Geographic Scope of Anticoagulant Rodenticides in the Critically Endangered California Condor Brodifacoum toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) with evidence of increased hazard upon subsequent anticoagulant rodenticide exposure 1. Results of Trial 1 2. Results of trial 2 3. Results of trial 3 4. Results of Blood Clotting Assays 5. Results of Trial 3 Blood Chemistry Analysis Assessing Exposure, Physiological Effects, and Geographic Scope of Anticoagulant Rodenticides in the Critically Endangered California Condor Use of blood clotting assays to assess anticoagulant rodenticide exposure and effects in free-ranging birds of prey