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Costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. The analysis includes electricity and natural gas consumption, covering 75% of building energy consumption in Pittsburgh and 85% in Austin. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings, and GHG reductions. Results suggest uncertainty in local stocks, demands, and efficiency significantly impacts anticipated outcomes....
The purpose of this study was to develop land use projections for the middle of the next century. To separate the influence of climate change from other factors on land use, projections (a Central Projection and two variants) were made under both unchanged and changed climate. They cover the plausible range of alternative land claims of agriculture and urbanization. Impacts of climate change on land suitability as well as overall changes in the acreages of several land use categories are presented.
The purpose of this study was to develop land use projections for the middle of the next century. To separate the influence of climate change from other factors on land use, projections (a Central Projection and two variants) were made under both unchanged and changed climate. They cover the plausible range of alternative land claims of agriculture and urbanization. Impacts of climate change on land suitability as well as overall changes in the acreages of several land use categories are presented.
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Documented occurrences for peregrine falcon, gyrfalcon, and rough-legged hawk. Current distribution of raptor concentration areas. Changes in mean summer (June, July, and August) temperature (2010s to 2060s) within the modeled raptor concentration area. Length of growing season at current, near-term future (2020s), and long-term future (2060s) time intervals within the modeled raptor concentration. Spring precipitation (March, April, and May) in mm within the modeled distribution of raptor concentration areas. Current, 2040 medium-development scenario, and 2040 high-development scenario landscape condition within the current raptor concentration areas in the North Slope study area. These data are provided by Bureau...
The aim of the Lifestyle project is to analyse the CO 2 emission reduction potential of lifestyle change. The analysis is carried out by examining the direct and the indirect energy contents of the average Dutch household consumption. An overview of the past developments of Dutch sector energy intensities is produced and its consequences for the average household energy requirement are studied. Also differences in energy requirement related to differences in lifestyle are assessed. Calculations of the Dutch household expenditure survey has resulted in an overview of the energy requirement per income and spending subcategory. The correlations between some relevant household factors are determined and discussed.
The manufacturing sector in developing countries accounts for a steadily increasing share of world energy consumption and global greenhouse gas emissions. This paper is based on a study on policies to stimulate improvement of energy efficiency in the industrial sector in developing countries. The paper highlights developments in respect of the efficiency of industrial energy use in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The paper begins to outline some salient features of energy and technology use in four energy-intensive industries. Subsequently, recent policy initiatives and institutional development in support of rational use of energy (RUE) in industry are considered. The paper concludes with national policy priorities...
Some theoretical results concerning the nature of the relationship between the scientific quality and economic value of imperfect weather forecasts are obtained. A prototype multistage decision-making model is considered, involving only two possible actions and two possible states of weather. This particular form of model is motivated by a real-world application known as the fruit-frost problem. For an infinite-horizon, discounted version of this model it is shown that economic value remains zero below a forecast quality threshold and then rises monotonically but nonlinearly above this threshold. In particular, the relative sensitivity of economic value to changes in the quality of forecasts increases as perfect...


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