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Next-generation U.S. biofuel capacity should reach about 88 million gallons in 2010, thanks in large measure to one plant becoming commercially operational in 2010, using noncellulosic animal fat to produce green diesel. U.S. production capacity for cellulosic biofuels is estimated to be 10 million gallons for 2010, much less than the 100 million gallons originally mandated for use by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. In early 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency lowered the cellulosic biofuel mandate to 6.5 million gallons, more in line with production prospects. Even so, expansion of next-generation fuels will have to be rapid to meet subsequent annual mandates and the longer term goal of 16...
Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming...
Revegetation and cattle production are major objectives in the reclamation plan for mine tailings at the Highland Valley Copper mine in Canada. Residual molybdenum (Mo) in the tailings is imbibed by vegetation and forages accumulate up to 400 ppm Mo at the Highmont tailings pond. Grazing studies with cattle determined the feasibility of utilising the site for livestock production and published results are reviewed. Clinical evaluations (1999?2001) revealed signs of lameness, diarrhoea and hair coat depigmentation in cows but they recovered without treatment. Supplement trials (2002 ? 2004) demonstrated the efficacy of copper (Cu) sulphate for the alleviation of clinical disorders. Dietary Mo was rapidly eliminated...
Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming...
By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food prices increase and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006–09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states. At this rate, a doubling of expected profitability from biomass crops would expand cropland...
Revegetation and cattle production are major objectives in the reclamation plan for mine tailings at the Highland Valley Copper mine in Canada. Residual molybdenum (Mo) in the tailings is imbibed by vegetation and forages accumulate up to 400 ppm Mo at the Highmont tailings pond. Grazing studies with cattle determined the feasibility of utilising the site for livestock production and published results are reviewed. Clinical evaluations (1999?2001) revealed signs of lameness, diarrhoea and hair coat depigmentation in cows but they recovered without treatment. Supplement trials (2002 ? 2004) demonstrated the efficacy of copper (Cu) sulphate for the alleviation of clinical disorders. Dietary Mo was rapidly eliminated...
By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food prices increase and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006–09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states. At this rate, a doubling of expected profitability from biomass crops would expand cropland...