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Shifts in plant community structure in shrub and grass-dominated ecosystems are occurring over large land areas in the western US. It is not clear what effect this vegetative change will have on rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling, and thus long-term ecosystem productivity. To study the effect of different plant species on the decomposability of soil organic substrates and rates of C- and N-cycling, we conducted laboratory incubations of soils from a 15-yr-old experimental plot where big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum [Fisch.] Schult.) plants had been planted in a grid pattern. Soil samples collected from beneath crested wheatgrass had significantly greater total...
Our objective is to improve the scientific understanding of the modes, rates, and mechanisms of carbon stabilization and losses in soils from Alaska, California, and other Western states. We focus on the biophysical and microbial mechanisms that drive carbon gains and losses, and to use our data to improve models of soil carbon cycling. This catalog supports research from several projects focused on soil carbon cycling. It encompasses multiple types of datasets including environmental, ecological, biological, isotopic, mineralogical, genomic, flux, and modeled data from water, vegetation, soil, and atmospheric matrices. The catalog will be available online and to the public. Therefore, publication of data through...
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Soils are a vast reservoir of organic carbon (C), rendering the fate of soil C an important control on the global climate system. Widespread changes in soil C storage capacity present a potentially strong feedback to global change. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of how soil C will respond to climate and/or land use disturbance remains illusive, resulting in major uncertainties in global climate models. Our working group will synthesize information on the processes controlling soil C storage across different spatial scales and develop new procedures to translate local measurements to the regional and global scale datasets used by models. These activities will improve our ability to map the vulnerability of soil...
Forests are important in the global carbon cycle, forming a major sink for carbon. Deforestation is a significant source of carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere. There is some scope to enhance natural carbon sinks, and therefore reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases, through afforestation and conservation of existing forests. Such initiatives may be implemented to "offset" emissions of greenhouse gases from other sources. This may be undertaken by private companies, or by governments as part of bilateral agreements or multilateral arrangements. International carbon offsets may be cost effective in terms of reduction of carbon emissions achieved, and may also be one way to mobilise private capital to fund...
Shifts in plant community structure in shrub and grass-dominated ecosystems are occurring over large land areas in the western US. It is not clear what effect this vegetative change will have on rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling, and thus long-term ecosystem productivity. To study the effect of different plant species on the decomposability of soil organic substrates and rates of C- and N-cycling, we conducted laboratory incubations of soils from a 15-yr-old experimental plot where big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum [Fisch.] Schult.) plants had been planted in a grid pattern. Soil samples collected from beneath crested wheatgrass had significantly greater total...
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Ecosystem accounts link national-scale environmental and economic trends, offering an internationally standardized approach to tracking sustainability. We compile ecosystem accounts for Rwanda over a 25-year period, and demonstrate that despite strong economic growth, social development, and high-level commitment to environmental goals, ecosystem services fundamental to Rwanda's well-being have declined substantially during this period. Conversion of forests and other natural ecosystems to cropland are the primary drivers of these trends. Ecosystem accounts are particularly important for tracking sustainability in African nations with high levels of economic and population growth and rapid environmental change....
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Although ecosystem service (ES) modeling has progressed rapidly in the last 10-15 years, comparative studies on data and model selection effects have become more common only recently. Such studies have drawn mixed conclusions about whether different data and model choices yield divergent results. In this study we apply inter- and intra-model comparisons to address these questions at national and provincial scales in Rwanda. We compare results of (1) carbon, annual, and seasonal water yield using InVEST and WASSI models, and the above plus the InVEST sediment regulation model using (2) 30- and 300 m resolution data and (3) three different input land cover datasets. For the inter-model comparison, we found the two...
Abstract (from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2745.12571/full): 1.Changing winter climate extremes are expected to result in the poleward migration of mangrove forests at the expense of salt marshes. Although mangroves and marshes are both highly valued ecosystems, the ecological implications of mangrove expansion have not been fully investigated. 2.Here we examined the effects of mangrove expansion on below-ground properties related to peat development and carbon storage. We investigated plant-soil interactions in marshes and across mangrove forest structural gradients in three locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico (USA). We compared our results to those from terrestrial grasslands where the...
Precipitation amount and seasonal timing determine the duration and distribution of water available for plant and microbial activity in the cold desert sagebrush steppe. In this study, we sought to determine if a sustained shift in the amount and timing of precipitation would affect soil microbial diversity, community composition, and soil carbon (C) storage. Field plots were irrigated (+200 mm) during the dormant or growing-season for 17 years. Microbial community responses were assessed over the course of a year at two depths (15–20 cm, 95–100 cm) by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), along with co-occurring changes in plant cover and edaphic properties. Bacterial richness, Shannon Weaver...


    map background search result map search result map Data Release for The sensitivity of ecosystem service models to choices of input data and spatial resolution (ver. 1.1, June 2020) Data Release for Toward ecosystem accounts for Rwanda: Tracking 25 years of change in ecosystem service potential and flows Data Release for Toward ecosystem accounts for Rwanda: Tracking 25 years of change in ecosystem service potential and flows Data Release for The sensitivity of ecosystem service models to choices of input data and spatial resolution (ver. 1.1, June 2020)