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Summary The use of biomass to produce bioenergy in order to provide a wide range of energy services (heat, light, comfort, entertainment, information, mobility etc.), and to produce biomaterials as substitutes for those presently manufactured from petro-chemicals, is an integrating response to a number of global problems. These include equity, development, energy supply security, rural employment, and climate change mitigation. Biomass provides fuel flexibility to match a wide range of energy demands and is a renewable energy source that can be stored, which is an advantage over several other forms of renewable energy. It has been identified by the European Union as a significant contributor to its 12% renewable...
The relevance of econometric studies of ownership and use of private cars for environmental issues is sketched and some recent results are reviewed.
Research performed at the AB-DLO and the Free University was intended to quantify the effects of a doubled CO2 concentration on some key agronomic species and grasslands. A set of physiological and morphological processes was studied and related to above- and below ground cycling of carbon. The research was based on experiments and simulation studies at the level of plant, crop and soil in laboratory facilities and semi-field conditions with controlled CO2 supply. Agricultural crops were grown in "Open Top Chambers" or greenhouses and grasses in transparent tunnels made of Lexan. Soil processes and root respiration were studied in the Wageningen Rhizolab. Photosynthesis and assimilate partitioning were measured...
In a field experiment we attempted to stimulate car users to come to a more selective use of their vehicle by means of providing information and feedback about different negative consequences of their car use. Attitude change was observed but the experimental treatments did not lead to behavioural changes. Attempts to influence car use arouse psychological resistance. Therefore, effects opposite to those intended occurred. We discuss the possible implications of the results for policymaking.
For the purposes of this analysis, Wildland Urban Interface is mapped using 2000 Census data and the communities listed in Idaho as "at risk" in the 2001 Federal Register (Vol. 66, Number 160, August 17, 2001), buffered by 1 mile. There were weaknesses with both data sets; data representing "urban wildland communities" are commonly not incorporated communities, nor are they areas that can be precisely located from a geographic standpoint. The Census data accounts for permanent residences only; it does not account for seasonal residences (e.g., summer cabins and ski area condominiums), or residences occurring on public lands (e.g. leased cabin sites). These data were designed to characterize mid-scale patterns across...