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We studied patterns of paternity in 840 nestling bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) from 191 pairbonded adults and the chicks they reared in west central New York, USA, during 19831986, using allozyme data (4 variable loci). Thirty-six (4.3%) nestlings exhibited genotypes that excluded a putative parent as a genetic parent. Using the method of Westneat et al. (1987) we estimated that 14.6% of the nestlings were sired by extrapair copulations and that 28% of the nests contained = 1 nestling resulting from extra-pair fertilizations (EPFs). Rates of EPFs did not appear to be related to population density among our bobolink populations. Younger males and older females were more likely to have young in their nests sired...
Conclusions:Landscape features affect rates of brood parasitism. Rates of parasitism correlate with proximity to woody vegetation along patch edges. Influx of woody vegetation is associated with roadsides and grazing.Thresholds/Learnings:
Conclusions:The effects of landscape fragmentation depend on habitat structure, landscape context, the predator community, and the impact of parasitism. Because these factors differ substantially in western ecosystem compared to eastern forest ecosystems, it is difficult to make universal generalizations about the effects of landscape fragmentation on ecosystem processes and wildlife dynamicsThresholds/Learnings: