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State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the...
The primary supposition about renewable forms of energy is that use of such resources will not result in depletion or exhaustion. While it is true that natural energy flows such as sun and wind are not directly subject to degradation by use, there may still be indirect limitations on renewability. The exploitation of natural energy flows may require that systems of nonrenewable "support" resources be used to capture, store, and convert natural energy into useful forms. Poor resource management practices that degrade the support resources may therefore, in effect, endanger renewability. Biomass is an illustrative case of a renewable energy resource with nonrenewable support components. The soil and water management...
The primary supposition about renewable forms of energy is that use of such resources will not result in depletion or exhaustion. While it is true that natural energy flows such as sun and wind are not directly subject to degradation by use, there may still be indirect limitations on renewability. The exploitation of natural energy flows may require that systems of nonrenewable "support" resources be used to capture, store, and convert natural energy into useful forms. Poor resource management practices that degrade the support resources may therefore, in effect, endanger renewability. Biomass is an illustrative case of a renewable energy resource with nonrenewable support components. The soil and water management...
This study proposes a new use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure the operational, environmental and both-unified efficiency measures of US coal-fired power plants. The power plants produce not only desirable outputs (e.g., electricity) but also undesirable outputs (e.g., CO2 and NOx) as a result of their plant operations. A Range-Adjusted Measure (RAM) is used as an original non-radial DEA model. Then, it is reformulated for handling undesirable (bad) outputs. The proposed use of DEA models measures the environmental and unified performance of power plants under two variable alternatives (with and without CO2 emission control) in order to examine both the influence of US Clean Air Act (CAA) on the acid...
The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is approaching major milestones in the form of permit applications for an encapsulation plant and a deep geologic repository. This paper presents an overview of the bedrock and surface modelling work that comprises a major part of the on-going site characterization in Sweden and that results in syntheses of the sites, called site descriptions. The site description incorporates descriptive models of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. The site description is intended to serve the needs of both repository engineering with respect...
Two grasses, Agropyron smithii and A. inerme , were planted in a seed mixture with Ceratoides lanata in 1977 on two soil disturbances. These grasses were selected to test their responses to the presence of C. lanata . Biomass of leaf, stem, crown and roots were measured for each grass alone, with other plants of the same species, and with C. lanata as nearest neighbor. Total non-structural carbohydrates were determined for all biomass samples. A. smithii produced the lowest amounts of stem and root biomass when grown in close association with another A. smithii plant. In contrast, this species produced the most shallow-root (0-20 cm) biomass when closely associated with C. lanata. A. inerme leaf biomass was lowest...
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All gillnet data represented here expand upon vessel operations (OP table) data, all of which are collected by the United States Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center and its partners. The Gillnet Tables contain data collected from the research vessel deploying various gear used for gillnet data collection. The database uses sample_type to indicate the gear deployed. The tables relating to Gillnet are: GN_Annulus.csv, GN_Catch.csv, GN_Effort.csv, GN_Fish.csv, GN_L, GN_LF.csv, GN_OP.csv, GN_Prey.csv, GN_Stomach.csv, LMMB_Fish_Prey.csv, and LMMB_Invert_Prey.csv Data Quality: Note that the following data release is a snapshot of the database at the time of release. Some data quality checks are still being...
Categories: Data; Tags: Alewife, Bathythermograph, Benthos, Bloater, Cisco, All tags...
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Areas of potential alternative/renewnable resources for wind power also hydroelectric and hydrokinetic also biomass energy. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. These data may not have the accuracy, resolution, completeness, timeliness, or other characteristics appropriate for applications that potential users of the data may contemplate. The User is encouraged to carefully consider the content of the metadata file associated with these data. The BLM should be cited as the data...
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These data were compiled for a study that investigated the effects of drought seasonality and plant community composition in a dryland ecosystem. In 2015 U.S. Geological Survey ecologists recorded vegetation and soil moisture data in 36 experimental plots which manipulated precipitation in two plant community types. The experiment consisted of three precipitation treatments: control (ambient precipitation), cool-season drought (-66% ambient precipitation November-April), and warm-season drought (-66% ambient precipitation May-October), applied in two plant communities (perennial grasses with or without a large shrub, Ephedra viridis) over a three-year period. These data were collected from 2015 to 2022 near Canyonlands...
Categories: Data; Tags: Achnatherum hymenoides, Botany, C3 photosynthesis, C4 photosynthesis, Canyonlands National Park, All tags...
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This dataset is a single comma-delimited text file (.csv). Data include the name of lakes where sampling occurred, approximate geographic coordinates of each lake, historical dynamics of the lake, and indication of measurements taken at the lake.
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This dataset is a single comma-delimited text file (.csv). Data include the name of lakes where samples were obtained, the historical dynamics of that lake, the sampled community type, and the dry mass of annual new growth. Shrub community measurements are a combination of understory mass from quadrat harvests and shrub stem mass derived from published allometric equations.
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This dataset provides maps of biomass carbon (C) in gC/m2 of coastal herbaceous wetlands at a resolution of 30 m across the conterminous United States (CONUS) for 2015.
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These data have been collected by a collaborative and coordinated research network, SPARCnet (Salamander Population and Adaptation Research Collaboration network). We collected these data to examine patterns in seasonal and latitudinal variation in population density. This data can be used to estimate local salamander biomass, correcting for imperfect detection, and then compare these to estimates of biomass for other vertebrate species in North America that are known to have out-sized roles in ecosystem processes.
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This data release is comprised of tidal marsh biomass data and spatial predictions of peak biomass and Julian day of peak biomass using data from the Landsat archive. Aboveground biomass dry weight of mixed-species plots (25x50 cm) at a tidal marsh in Willapa Bay, Washington were used to establish a relationship between biomass and tasseled cap greeness (TCG). The julian day of annual peak greenness and the value of annual peak greenness for 32 years at Bandon National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Grays Harbor NWR, and Nisqually NWR was calculated by fitting a Gaussian function to the TCG values for a given year. The value of each 30 meter pixel is the Julian day of maximum predicted TCG or the maximum predicted TCG....
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All mensuration data represented here expand upon vessel operations (OP table) data, all of which are collected by the United States Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center and its partners. The Mensuration Tables contain data collected from the research vessel deploying various gear used for mensuration data collection. The database uses sample_type to indicate the gear deployed. The tables relating to Mensuration are: Mensuration.csv, MS_head_rope_depth.csv, MS_FOOT_ROPE_DEPTH, MS_Primary.csv, MS_Temperature.csv, and MS_Wingspread.csv Data Quality: Note that the following data release is a snapshot of the database at the time of release. Some data quality checks are still being undertaken after the time...
Categories: Data; Tags: Alewife, Bathythermograph, Benthos, Bloater, Cisco, All tags...
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Studies were conducted in the central Mojave Desert to quantify how creosote bushes (Larrea tridentata) respond to physical damage during large-scale military training exercises. Creosote bush possesses a resilient growth form that recovers from repeated physical damage via resprouts arising from meristems in stem bark below severed or crushed canopy units. At high levels of disturbance by heavy vehicles, nearly all individuals showed measurable breakage, but without additional damage each plant can regain a full canopy within 5 years under arid field conditions. Resprouts exhibited more vigorous growth and doubled the biomass accumulation stimulated by high rainfall of 1998, an El Niño year, vs. a normal year....
The introduction of biofuels from biomass for transport purposes in an energy system model shows that bioethanol and vegetable oil can compete with oil products without subsidies provided prices of imported energy carriers are high, i.e. crude oil prices around $ 100/bbl. About half of the biomass will be used for motor fuel substitutes, whose share of the final energy in the transportation sector will increase to 10% in 2030. This gives rise to a nearly 9% drop in CO2 emissions in the transportation sector as compared to an emission balance where all real local emissions are fully counted. Despite a strong enhancement of biomass and biomass fuels and quite high prices for oil and gas up to 2030, BtL products like...
Seasonal time of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) harvest affects yield and biofuel quality and balancing these two components may vary depending on conversion system. A field study compared fall and spring harvest measuring biomass yield, element concentration, carbohydrate characterization, and total synthetic gas production as indicators of biofuel quality for direct combustion, ethanol production, and gasification systems for generation of energy. Switchgrass yields decreased almost 40% (from about 7-4.4 Mg ha(-1)) in winters with above average snowfall when harvest was delayed over winter until spring. The moisture concentration also decreased (from about 35070 g kg(-1)) only reaching low enough levels for...
In June 2008, 303,000 L of hydrofracturing fl uid from a natural gas well were applied to a 0.20-ha area of mixed hardwood forest on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. During application, severe damage and mortality of ground vegetation was observed, followed about 10 d later by premature leaf drop by the overstory trees. Two years after fl uid application, 56% of the trees within the fl uid application area were dead. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. was the tree species with the highest mortality, and Acer rubrum L. was the least aff ected, although all tree species present on the site showed damage symptoms and mortality. Surface soils (0–10 cm) were sampled in July and October 2008, June and October 2009,...
The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is approaching major milestones in the form of permit applications for an encapsulation plant and a deep geologic repository. This paper presents an overview of the bedrock and surface modelling work that comprises a major part of the on-going site characterization in Sweden and that results in syntheses of the sites, called site descriptions. The site description incorporates descriptive models of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. The site description is intended to serve the needs of both repository engineering with respect...


map background search result map search result map Resprout characteristics of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) when subjected to repeated vehicle damage Data for climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes Great Lakes Research Vessel Operations 1958-2018: Gillnet. (ver. 3.0, April 2019) Great Lakes Research Vessel Operations 1958-2018: Mensuration. (ver. 3.0, April 2019) BLM REA YKL 2011 Wind Power Potential and Hydropower and Woody Biomass Coverage Aboveground Net Primary Production Estimates from the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge Overview of Sampled Lakes, Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge Peak Biomass Carbon in Tidal Herbaceous Wetlands of the Conterminous United States Plant composition, shrub biomass, and soil biogeochemistry from an experimental drought treatment on the Colorado Plateau Hemingway Site: Range-wide salamander densities reveal a key component of terrestrial vertebrate biomass in eastern North American forests Plant composition, shrub biomass, and soil biogeochemistry from an experimental drought treatment on the Colorado Plateau Resprout characteristics of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) when subjected to repeated vehicle damage Data for climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes Aboveground Net Primary Production Estimates from the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge Overview of Sampled Lakes, Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge Great Lakes Research Vessel Operations 1958-2018: Gillnet. (ver. 3.0, April 2019) Great Lakes Research Vessel Operations 1958-2018: Mensuration. (ver. 3.0, April 2019) BLM REA YKL 2011 Wind Power Potential and Hydropower and Woody Biomass Coverage Peak Biomass Carbon in Tidal Herbaceous Wetlands of the Conterminous United States