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In many social sciurids, male territoriality confers significant mating advantages. We evaluated resident male paternity in Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni), a colonial ground-dwelling sciurid, where males and females cooperatively defend territories. Contrary to findings reported for other social sciurids, our results show that territorial resident males do not gain significant reproductive advantages. Resident males sired the majority of offspring from their respective territories only 10.5% of the time. A single non-resident male sired equal or greater number of offspring than any single resident male 71.2% of the time. While adult males were more likely to sire a greater number of offspring, standard...
In this paper we review threshold behaviour in environmental systems, which are often associated with the onset of floods, contamination and erosion events, and other degenerative processes. Key objectives of this review are to a) suggest indicators for detecting threshold behavior, b) discuss their implications for predictability, c) distinguish different forms of threshold behavior and their underlying controls, and d) hypothesise on possible reasons for why threshold behaviour might occur. Threshold behaviour involves a fast qualitative change of either a single process or the response of a system. For elementary phenomena this switch occurs when boundary conditions (e.g., energy inputs) or system states as expressed...
Research performed at the AB-DLO and the Free University was intended to quantify the effects of a doubled CO2 concentration on some key agronomic species and grasslands. A set of physiological and morphological processes was studied and related to above- and below ground cycling of carbon. The research was based on experiments and simulation studies at the level of plant, crop and soil in laboratory facilities and semi-field conditions with controlled CO2 supply. Agricultural crops were grown in "Open Top Chambers" or greenhouses and grasses in transparent tunnels made of Lexan. Soil processes and root respiration were studied in the Wageningen Rhizolab. Photosynthesis and assimilate partitioning were measured...
Breeding aggregations of Bufo cognatus were observed in southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico during June, July and August, 1980-82. Most breeding aggregations lasted only two or three nights following summer rainstorms. Males substantially outnumbered females at choruses, and females actively selected mates from among displaying males. Some small males adopted satellite positions near calling males, and the percentage of time a male was observed calling was significantly correlated with snout-vent length. Male mating success was positively correlated with the percentage of time a male was observed calling, but male size and mating success were not correlated. There was no indication of positive assortative...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Behaviour
In a field experiment we attempted to stimulate car users to come to a more selective use of their vehicle by means of providing information and feedback about different negative consequences of their car use. Attitude change was observed but the experimental treatments did not lead to behavioural changes. Attempts to influence car use arouse psychological resistance. Therefore, effects opposite to those intended occurred. We discuss the possible implications of the results for policymaking.
This paper revisits the recent developments in biofuel markets and their economic, social and environmental impacts. Several countries have introduced mandates and targets for biofuel expansion. Production, international trade and investment have increased sharply in the last few years. However, some analysts linked biofuels to the 2007–2008 global food crisis. Existing studies diverge on the magnitude of the projected long-term impacts of biofuels on food prices and supply, with studies that model only the agricultural sector showing higher impacts and studies that model the entire economy showing relatively lower impacts. In terms of climate change mitigation, biofuels reduces GHG emissions only if GHG emissions...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: attitudes, behaviour, change, context, energy
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Risk to predators hunting dangerous prey is an emerging area of research and could account for possible persistent differences in gray wolf (Canis lupus) pack sizes. We documented significant differences in long-term wolf-pack-size averages and variation in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Denali National Park and Preserve, Yellowstone National Park, and Yukon, Canada (p<0.01). The SNF differences could be related to the wolves’ risk when hunting primary prey, for those packs (N=3) hunting moose (Alces americanus) were significantly larger than those (N=10) hunting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (F1,8=16.50, p=0.004). Our data support the hypothesis that differential pack-size persistence may be perpetuated...
Previous studies of Gunnison's prairie dogs, Cynomys gunnisoni, have reached different conclusions about the factors influencing sociality in this species. In this study I tested whether Gunnison's prairie dog social structure was resource-based or whether male mating strategies drive the organizational patterns observed. Group size, where the term group refers to individuals occupying the same territory, was predicted by territory size and density of food available. The spatial overlap of adults within territories was positively correlated with spatial patchiness of food resources. All group members participated in territory defense, although adult males engaged in significantly more intergroup aggressive interactions....
In this paper we review threshold behaviour in environmental systems, which are often associated with the onset of floods, contamination and erosion events, and other degenerative processes. Key objectives of this review are to a) suggest indicators for detecting threshold behavior, b) discuss their implications for predictability, c) distinguish different forms of threshold behavior and their underlying controls, and d) hypothesise on possible reasons for why threshold behaviour might occur. Threshold behaviour involves a fast qualitative change of either a single process or the response of a system. For elementary phenomena this switch occurs when boundary conditions (e.g., energy inputs) or system states as expressed...


    map background search result map search result map Differential wolf-pack-size persistence and the role of risk when hunting dangerous prey Differential wolf-pack-size persistence and the role of risk when hunting dangerous prey