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Characterizing avian diet is complex, especially for generalist insectivores, as food resources can vary over space and time, and individuals of different sexes and ages may consume different food. We examined diet of a generalist insectivore, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), at Roosevelt Lake in central Arizona from 2000 to 2004, determined from 344 fecal samples. We found that five prey categories accounted for 70% of the proportional abundance in flycatcher diet: Hymenoptera, Diptera, Cicadellidae, Coleoptera, and Formicidae, although the relative amounts of these and other taxa differed significantly among years. We detected no differences in diet between sexes of adults, but...
Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected from 16 sites across the Great Lakes to quantify normal annual variation in total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) exposure and to validate the sample size choice in earlier work. A sample size of 5 eggs or 5 nestlings per site was adequate to quantify exposure to PCBs in tree swallows given the current exposure levels and variation. There was no difference in PCB exposure in 2 randomly selected sets of 5 eggs collected in the same year, but analyzed in different years. Additionally, there was only modest annual variation in exposure, with between 69% (nestlings) and 73% (eggs) of sites having no differences between years. There was a tendency,...