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Herbivores transform landscapes and affect succession via selective foraging that alters vegetation composition. In the boreal forest, mammalian herbivores, mainly moose, facilitate a shift toward the dominance of heavily defended species over time, such as white spruce. The effects of moose herbivory are intensified by the browsing of snowshoe hares. However, unlike moose, snowshoe hares also browse seedlings of white spruce. We quantified herbivory by snowshoe hares on white spruce along the Tanana River, interior Alaska, and assessed the effects on white spruce demography via two different herbivore exclosure experiments. We hypothesized that both experiments would show reduced plant density and height growth...


    map background search result map search result map Stage-dependent effects of browsing by snowshoe hares on successional dynamics in a boreal forest ecosystem Stage-dependent effects of browsing by snowshoe hares on successional dynamics in a boreal forest ecosystem