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Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) outbreaks are important disturbances affecting subalpine forests of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in the southern Rocky Mountains. However, little is known about the influences of these outbreaks on overall forest dynamics. We used age-structure analyses and dendrochronological techniques to investigate the effects of a major spruce beetle outbreak on stand composition, dominance, tree age and size structures, radial growth, and succession in subalpine forests in Colorado. This outbreak, which occurred in the 1940s, caused a shift in dominance from spruce to fir and a reduction in average and...
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Over the last century there has been marked expansion and infilling of pinyon (Pinus spp.)–juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands into grassland and shrubland ecosystems across the western United States. Although range expansions in pinyon-juniper populations have been documented with changing climate throughout the Holocene, over the last century, local scale impacts such as livestock grazing, changes in fire regimes, and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are thought to be more recent drivers of pinyon-juniper woodland distribution. Our objective was to examine the role of historical livestock grazing relative to past climate in regulating pinyon (Pinus edulis Engelm.) recruitment and growth over the last...
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We examined age structure and spatial arrangement of piñon–juniper woodlands and savannas on six plots distributed across three different soil types in northern Arizona. These stands, as typical of many others in piñon–juniper ecosystems, have experienced increases in tree densities since the arrival of European settlers. The goal of this study was to reconstruct stand conditions in 1860, prior to livestock grazing, using stem-mapping to determine tree arrangement and tree-ring analysis to examine age structure and density. Ripley's K(t), Ripley's K12(t), and Moran's I were used to analyze nearest neighbor distances, spatial association, and spatial autocorrelation, respectively. All sites have long term presence...
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Conclusions: There was a significant reduction in ovenbird pairing success at compressor sites (77%) compared with noiseless wellpads (92%). These differences were apparent regardless of territory quality or individual male quality. Noise interferes with a male's song, such that females may not hear the male's song at greater distances and/or females may perceive males to be of lower quality because of distortion of song characteristics Thresholds/Learnings: Synopsis: Anthropogenic noise is rapidly increasing in wilderness areas as a result of industrial expansion. This study assessed pairing success and age distribution of male ovenbirds, Seiurus aurocapilla, in the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada, in areas around...
Ages and diameters were measured in mature stands for each of 507 ponderosa pine, 541 lodgepole pine, 141 limber pine, and 217 Engelmann spruce trees in the Colorado Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, USA. Cumulative age distributions were statistically different for each species. The spruce and ponderosa pine age distributions each exhibited a strong infection point at @?210 and 125 yr, respectively, while neither lodgepole nor limber pine showed such a sharp inflection point. We suggest that the presence of this inflection point may be indicative of "climax" type in mature stands and interpret the age distributions of these species as reflective of their climax, colonizing and fugitive ecological patterns, respectively....
A five-stand chronosequence spanning >500 yr is used to characterize changes in age structure, overstory mortality, recruitment, and understory growth in developing Colorado Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii)-subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. Stand development follows a postdisturbance sequence of colonization, spruce exclusion, spruce reinitiation, and second-generation forest. This model of spruce-fir forest development reflects a range of disturbance intensities from large conflagrations to small-scale tree deaths. Catastrophic disturbance initiates stand development, and canopy gap replacements occur at predictable times during stand development as the life-spans of the two species are expressed. Previous,...


    map background search result map search result map Influence of Livestock Grazing and Climate on Pinyon Pine (Pinus edulis) Dynamics - Rangeland Ecology & Management Reconstruction of age structure and spatial arrangement of piñon–juniper woodlands and savannas of Anderson Mesa, northern Arizona Chronic industrial noise affects pairing success and age structure of ovenbirds Seiurus aurocapilla. Reconstruction of age structure and spatial arrangement of piñon–juniper woodlands and savannas of Anderson Mesa, northern Arizona Influence of Livestock Grazing and Climate on Pinyon Pine (Pinus edulis) Dynamics - Rangeland Ecology & Management Chronic industrial noise affects pairing success and age structure of ovenbirds Seiurus aurocapilla.