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In this paper part of an investigation is described into risks for climate change which are presently not adequately covered in General Circulation Models. The investigation included the interaction with biogeochemical cycles, the effects of clouds and aerosols, ice flow instability, albedo instability and modified ocean circulation. In this paper our results for clouds and aerosols and for biogeochemical cycles are reported.
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The waters of the Colorado River serve 27 million people in seven states and two countries but are overallocated by more than 10% of the river's historical mean. Climate models project runoff losses of 7-20% from the basin in this century due to human-induced climate change. Recent work has shown however that by the late 1800s, decades prior to allocation of the river's runoff in the 1920s, a fivefold increase in dust loading from anthropogenically disturbed soils in the southwest United States was already decreasing snow albedo and shortening the duration of snow cover by several weeks. The degree to which this increase in radiative forcing by dust in snow has affected timing and magnitude of runoff from the Upper...
In this project on future sustainable transport alternatives a two-step search process has been followed. First an analysis of critical success and failure factors of new technological options in passenger transport is made. These factors are found in the spatial, institutional, economic and social/psychological environment of the transport system. Next, systematically structured and expert based scenarios are con- structed in order to achieve a sustainable transport system in the year 2030 in which possible, expected and desired developments in the distinct fields are analyzed. Finally some policy conclusions are drawn.
In this project on future sustainable transport alternatives a two-step search process has been followed. First an analysis of critical success and failure factors of new technological options in passenger transport is made. These factors are found in the spatial, institutional, economic and social/psychological environment of the transport system. Next, systematically structured and expert based scenarios are con- structed in order to achieve a sustainable transport system in the year 2030 in which possible, expected and desired developments in the distinct fields are analyzed. Finally some policy conclusions are drawn.
In this project on future sustainable transport alternatives a two-step search process has been followed. First an analysis of critical success and failure factors of new technological options in passenger transport is made. These factors are found in the spatial, institutional, economic and social/psychological environment of the transport system. Next, systematically structured and expert based scenarios are con- structed in order to achieve a sustainable transport system in the year 2030 in which possible, expected and desired developments in the distinct fields are analyzed. Finally some policy conclusions are drawn.
The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the atmosphere, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol–cloud interactions, chemistry–climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also designed to serve as the physical system component of earth system models and models for decadal prediction in the near-term future—for example, through improved simulations in tropical land precipitation relative to earlier-generation GFDL models. This paper describes the dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the...
The nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotopic composition (δ15N and δ18O) of water soluble aerosol nitrate was measured in aerosol samples collected in Eilat, Israel, from August 2003 to November 2004. During this period δ15N values ranged from − 6.9‰ to + 1.9‰ and δ18O from + 65.1‰ to + 84.9‰ and exhibited strong seasonal variability with higher average δ15N values observed in the summer and higher δ18O values in the winter. Nitrate isotopic composition was compared with bulk chemical composition and extractable ion and trace metals on co-collected samples linking nitrate isotopic composition to various sources of aerosols to this region. Atmospheric processes impacting the isotopic signatures of nitrate were also considered....


    map background search result map search result map Response of Colorado River runoff to dust radiative forcing in snow Response of Colorado River runoff to dust radiative forcing in snow