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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) current acute aquatic life criterion for selenium (Se), 20 ?g/L, was based on a back-calculation from the chronic criterion of 5 ?g/L, using the acute-to-chronic ratio in reverse. While bioaccumulation and subsequent toxicity through dietary uptake are important factors in chronic toxicity, acute toxicity is a shortterm phenomenon, which should be promulgated with an acute value derived from direct toxicity studies, similar to other metals and metalloids. Acute toxicity values from the U.S. EPA Se criteria document were updated with more recent toxicity data for the two primary forms of Se, selenite (Se IV) and selenate (Se VI). Using this updated toxicity...