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A water-sampling apparatus used for the isolation and detection of Giardia cysts in water has been designed and tested. The sampling apparatus uses one of a variety of pumps or waterline pressure to move water through a filter. Two of the optional pumps are lightweight enough to make the apparatus portable and thus suitable for sampling in remote areas. This technique of sample processing produces good cyst recovery in much less time than is required with previously established methods. Giardia cysts are identified using direct immunofluorescence.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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Soil-water conditions provide valuable insight into the hydrologic system in an area. A soil-water balance quantitatively summarizes soil-water conditions and is based on climatic, soil, and vegetation characteristics that vary spatially and temporally. Soil-water balances in the Great Plains of the central United States were simulated for 1951-1980. Results of the simulations were mean annual estimates of infiltration, runoff, actual evapotranspiration, potential recharge, and consumptive water and irrigation requirements at 152 climatic data stations. A method was developed using a geographic information system to integrate and map the simulation results on the basis of spatially variable climatic, soil, and vegetation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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Four methods for estimating the 7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 20-year low flows for streams are compared by the bootstrap method. The bootstrap method is a Monte Carlo technique in which random samples are drawn from an unspecified sampling distribution defined from observed data. The nonparametric nature of the bootstrap makes it suitable for comparing methods based on a flow series for which the true distribution is unknown. Results show that the two methods based on hypothetical distribution (Log-Pearson III and Weibull) had lower mean square errors than did the G. E. P. Box-D. R. Cox transformation method or the Log-W. C. Boughton method which is based on a fit of plotting positions.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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The U.S. Geological Survey collected ground-water samples from the upper and middle aquifers of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in a 400-square-mile area of New Jersey from 1984 through 1986. Concentrations of lead were greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 micrograms per liter in water from 16 to 239 wells. The concentrations of cadmium were greater than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter in water from 10 to 241 wells. One-half of the wells that exceeded the lead MCL were in known areas of saltwater intrusion, as were all 10 wells that exceeded the cadmium MCL. The association of elevated concentrations of these metals with elevated concentrations...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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The sensitivity of streamflow to climate change was investigated in the American, Carson, and Truckee River Basins, California and Nevada. Nine gaging stations were used to represent streamflow in the basins. Annual models were developed by regressing 1961-1991 streamflow data on temperature and precipitation. Climate-change scenarios were used as inputs to the models to determine streamflow sensitivities. Climate-change scenarios were generated from historical time series by modifying mean temperatures by a range of +4??C to -4??C and total precipitation by a range of +25 percent to -25 percent. Results show that streamflow on the warmer, lower west side of the Sierra Nevada generally is more sensitive to temperature...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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A weighted average method was used to analyze transition zone vegetation in the Great Dismal Swamp to determine if a more uniform determination of wetland boundaries can be made nationwide. The method was applied to vegetation data collected on four transects and three vertical layers across the wetland-to-upland transition zone of the swamp. Ecological index values based on water tolerance were either taken from the literature or derived from local species tolerances. Wetland index values were calculated for 25-m increments using species cover and rankings based on the ecological indices. Wetland index values were used to designate increments as either wetland, transitional, or upland, and to examine the usefulness...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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The water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous data collection allowed estimates to be made for each component of the water-balance equation independent of other components. The average annual precipitation was 948 millimeters. Average annual evapotranspiration was estimated at 637 millimeters, runoff was 160 millimeters, change in water storage in a waste-trench cover was 24 millimeters, and deep percolation was 208 millimeters. The magnitude of the difference between precipitation and all other components (81 millimeters per year) indicates that, in a similar environment, the water-budget method would be useful...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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The South Platte River Basin was one of 20 study units selected in 1991 for investigation under the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. One of the initial tasks undertaken by the study unit team was to review the environmental setting of the basin and assemble ancillary data on natural and anthropogenic factors in the basin. The physical, chemical, and biological quality of the water in the South Platte River Basin is explicitly tied to its environmental setting. The resulting water quality is the product of the natural conditions and human factors that make up the environmental setting of the basin.This description of the environmental setting of the South Platte River Basin...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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Historically, dissolved-oxygen (DO) data have been collected in the same manner as other water-quality constituents, typically at infrequent intervals as a grab sample or an instantaneous meter reading. Recent years have seen an increase in continuous water-quality monitoring with electronic dataloggers. This new technique requires new approaches in the statistical analysis of the continuous record. This paper presents an application of frequency-duration analysis to the continuous DO records of a cold and a warm water stream in rural southwestern Wisconsin. This method offers a quick, concise way to summarize large time-series data bases in an easily interpretable manner. Even though the two streams had similar...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) was determined at three sites in a gravel-bottomed central Missouri stream by: (1) two variations of an instream method, and (2) a laboratory method. SOD generally was greatest by the instream methods, which are considered more accurate, and least by the laboratory method. Disturbing stream sediment did not significantly decrease SOD by the instream method. Temperature ranges of up to 12 degree Celsius had no significant effect on the SOD. In the gravel-bottomed stream, the placement of chambers was critical to obtain reliable measurements. SOD rates were dependent on the method; therefore, care should be taken in comparing SOD data obtained by different methods. There is a need for...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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Recent literature concerning the modeling of chemical reactions during transport in ground water is examined with emphasis on sorption reactions. The theory of transport and reactions in porous media has been well documented. Numerous equations have been developed from this theory, to provide both continuous and sequential or multistep models, with the water phase considered for both mobile and immobile phases. Chemical reactions can be either equilibrium or non-equilibrium, and can be quantified in linear or non-linear mathematical forms. Non-equilibrium reactions can be separated into kinetic and diffusional rate-limiting mechanisms. Solutions to the equations are available by either analytical expressions or...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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A climate factor, CT, (T = 2-, 25-, and 100-year recurrence intervals) that delineates regional trends in small-basin flood frequency was derived using data from 71 long-term rainfall record sites. Values of CT at these sites were developed by a regression analysis that related rainfall-runoff model estimates of T-year floods to a sample set of 50 model calibrations. CT was regionalized via kriging to develop maps depicting its geographic variation for a large part of the United States east of the 105th meridian. Kriged estimates of CT and basin-runoff characteristics were used to compute regionalized T-year floods for 200 small drainage basins. Observed T-year flood estimates also were developed for these sites....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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The lower 4 miles of the Red River, a tributary of the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico, was designated as one of the 'instant' components of the National Wild and Scenic River System in 1968. Instream flow requirements were determined by several methods to quantify the claims made by the United States for a federal reserved water right under the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. The scenic (aesthetic), recreational, and fish and wildlife values are the purposes for which instream flow requirements were claimed. Since water quality is related to these values, instream flows for waste transport and protection of water quality were also included in the claim. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Instream Flow Incremental...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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A study of concentrations and distribution of major and trace elements in surficial bottom sediments of Little Rock Lake in northern Wisconsin included examination of spatial variation and grain-size effects. No significant differences with respect to metal distribution in sediments were observed between the two basins of the lake, despite the experimental acidification of one of the basins from pH 6.1 to 4.6. The concentrations of most elements in the lake sediments were generally similar to soil concentrations in the area and were well below sediment quality criteria. Two exceptions were lead and zinc, whose concentrations in July 1990 exceeded the criteria of 50 μg/g and 100 μg/g, respectively, in both littoral...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's effort to determine the long-term effects of acidic deposition on surface water chemistry, annual runoff was estimated for about 1000 ungaged sites in the eastern U.S. using runoff contour maps. One concern in using contour maps was that a bias may be introduced in the runoff estimates due to the size of the 1000 ungaged sites relative to the size of the watersheds used in developing the maps. To determine if a bias was present the relationship between the annual runoff (expressed as depth) and the watershed area for the Northeast (NE) and Southern Blue Ridge Province (SBRP) was tested using five regional data bases. One short-term data base (1984 Water Year,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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The Central Nebraska Basins (NAWQA) study unit includes the Platte River and two major tributaries, the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers. Platte River flows are variable of diversions, but the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers originate in an area of dune sand covered by grassland that generates consistent base flows. Ground water has no regional confining units and the system is a water table aquifer throughout. Macroinvertebrate and fish taxa were related to stream flow. One of the four wetland complexes includes habitat for threatened and endangered bird species. A water quality assessments will be based on the differences in environmental setting in each of four subunits within the study unit.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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Although our current (1990) knowledge of hydrologic and hydraulic processes is based on many years of study, there are river environments where these processes are complex and poorly understood. One of these environments is in mountainous areas, which cover about 25 percent of the United States. Use of conventional hydrologic and hydraulic techniques in mountain-river environments may produce erroneous results and interpretations in a wide spectrum of water-resources investigations. An ongoing U.S. Geological Survey research project is being conducted to improve the understanding of hydrologic and hydraulic processes of mountainous areas and to improve the results of subsequent hydrologic investigations. Future...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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Oxidized nitrogen (nitrite plus nitrate N) concentrations were measured from bulk precipitation, bulk throughfall, and screamflow in a 7. 86 hectare forested watershed in southeastern Oklahoma during the wet season from March through June 1983. Oxidized nitrogen inputs comparable to results of other studies were recorded during the 19 rainstorms sampled. Oxidized nitrogen concentrations appeared to increase after rainfall interacted with the pine and hardwood canopies and were inversely related to both rainfall and throughfall depth. Oxidized N concentrations in streamflow were greatest during the rising limb of storm flow with subsequent decreases during the falling limb of storm hydrographs and lowest during base...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin
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Discharge hydrographs computed from the theory of linear flow through topologically random channel networks are compared to actual discharge hydrographs for basins in semiarid regions of central Wyoming. The basins drained by the channel networks range in the size from 0. 69 to 10. 8 square miles. Topological information consisting of stream-network magnitude and link-length distribution parameters are used in calibrating celerity values that ensure that the peak discharge and excess rainfall volume of the resulting computed hydrographs match the peak discharge and excess-rainfall volume of the actual hydrographs. Results indicate that, for a given peak discharge and excess-rainfall volume in a basin, the sensitivity...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Bulletin