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Mercury (total and methyl) was evaluated in snow samples collected near a major mercury emission source on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) insoutheastern Idaho and 160 km downwind in Teton Range in westernWyoming. The sampling was done to assess near-field (<12 km)deposition rates around the source, compare them to those measured in a relatively remote, pristine downwind location, andto use the measurements to develop improved, site-specific modelinput parameters for precipitation scavenging coefficient and thefraction of Hg emissions deposited locally. Measured snow waterconcentrations (ng L-1) were converted to deposition (ugm-2) using the sample location snow water equivalent....
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To determine whether NO3− concentration pulses in surface water in early spring snowmelt discharge are due to atmospheric NO3−, we analyzed stream δ15N-NO3− and δ18O-NO3− values between February and June of 2001 and 2002 and compared them to those of throughfall, bulk precipitation, snow, and groundwater. Stream total Al, DOC and Si concentrations were used to indicate preferential water flow through the forest floor, mineral soil, and ground water. The study was conducted in a 135-ha subcatchment of the Arbutus Watershed in the Huntington Wildlife Forest in the Adirondack Region of New York State, U.S.A. Stream discharge in 2001 increased from 0.6 before to 32.4 mm day−1 during snowmelt, and element concentrations...
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Mercury (Hg) was measured in stream water and precipitation in the Loch Vale watershed in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, during 2001–2002 to investigate processes controlling Hg transport in high-elevation ecosystems. Total Hg concentrations in precipitation ranged from 2.6 to 36.2 ng/L and showed a strong seasonal pattern with concentrations that were 3 to 4 times higher during summer months. Annual bulk deposition of Hg was 8.3 to 12.4 μ g/m2 and was similar to deposition rates in the Midwestern and Northeastern U.S. Total Hg concentrations in streams ranged from 0.8 to 13.5 ng/L and were highest in mid-May on the rising limb of the snowmelt hydrograph. Stream-water Hg was positively correlated with dissolved...
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Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general...
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Total mercury (THg) load in rivers is often calculated from a site-specific "rating-curve" based on the relation between THg concentration and river discharge along with a continuous record of river discharge. However, there is no physical explanation as to why river discharge should consistently predict THg or any other suspended analyte. THg loads calculated by the rating-curve method were compared with those calculated by a "continuous surrogate concentration" (CSC) method in which a relation between THg concentration and suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) is constructed; THg loads then can be calculated from the continuous record of SSC and river discharge. The rating-curve and CSC methods, respectively,...
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Forested headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York show significant among-catchment variability in mean annual nitrate (NO3-) concentrations. Large contributions from deep groundwater with high NO3- concentrations have been invoked to explain high NO3- concentrations in stream water during the growing season. To determine whether variable contributions of groundwater could explain among-catchment differences in streamwater, we measured NO3- concentrations in 58 groundwater seeps distributed across six catchments known to have different annual average streamwater concentrations. Seeps were identified based on release from bedrock fractures and bedding planes and had consistently lower temperatures than...
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The different oxidation species of iodine have markedly different sorption properties. Hence, changes in iodine redox states can greatly affect the mobility of iodine in the environment. Although a major microbial role has been suggested in the past to account for these redox changes, little has been done to elucidate the responsible microorganisms or the mechanisms involved. In the work presented here, direct microbial reduction of iodate was demonstrated with anaerobic cell suspensions of the sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans which reduced 96% of an initial 100 ??M iodate to iodide at pH 7 in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer, whereas anaerobic cell suspensions of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium...
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An analysis of chloride (Cl-) concentrations and fluxes at the 41 ha Panola Mountain Research Watershed indicates that Cl- may be used effectively to differentiate 'new' and 'old' water flow through the hillslope and their respective contributions to streamwater. Rainfall and throughfall, the 'new' water inputs, are marked by low Cl- concentrations (<15 ??eq L-1). Stormwater moves rapidly to depth along preferred pathways in a deciduous forest hillslope, as evidenced by low Cl- concentrations (<20 ??eq L-1) in mobile soil water from zero-tension stainless-steel pan lysimeters. 'Old' waters, matrix soil waters and groundwater, typically have high Cl- concentrations (>30 ??eq L-1). Timing of soil water transport is...
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The objective of this research was to determine the process of atrazine transport compared to bromide and δO18 transport in sands near Denver. Three 1.5 × 2 × 1.5-m plots were installed and allowed to equilibrate for 2 years before research initiation and were instrumented with 1.5 × 2-m zero-tension pan lysimeters installed at 1.5-m depths. Additionally, each plot was instrumented with suction lysimeters, tensiometers, time domain reflectometry (TDR) moisture probes, and thermocouples (to measure soil temperature) at 15-cm depth increments. All plots were enclosed with a raised frame (of 8-cm height) to prevent surface runoff. During the 2-year period before research began, all suction and pan lysimeters were purged...
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Agricultural chemicals from nonpoint sources in groundwater are present in the major provinces of the High Plains aquifer in Nebraska. Nitrate and triazine-herbicide concentrations in groundwater were assessed to establish preliminary relations between these constituents and selected hydrogeologic, climatic, and land-use variables. Also, macropore flow paths were measured in an attempt to delineate their contribution to non-point source pollution from the study areas. Water from 82 wells in six study areas was analyzed for nitrate; water from 57 of the 82 wells was analyzed for triazine herbicides. Twenty-one independent variables were identified that could potentially affect chemical concentrations in groundwater....
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Chemical analyses from two short cores in Lake Monona show that pronounced changes in chemical stratigraphy have occurred since white man moved into Madison and southern Wisconsin and began modifying the area. Since the mid to late 1800's, there has been an appreciable increase in P, Fe, Mn, Al, and K in the uppermost sediments. Maximum concentrations of P were observed near the turn of the century and in the most recent sediment layers. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company.
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Wintertime precipitation sample data from 55 Snowpack sites and 17 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network Wetfall sites in the Rocky Mountain region were examined to identify long-term trends in chemical concentration, deposition, and precipitation using Regional and Seasonal Kendall tests. The Natural Resources Conservation Service snow-telemetry (SNOTEL) network provided snow-water-equivalent data from 33 sites located near Snowpack- and NADP Wetfall-sampling sites for further comparisons. Concentration and deposition of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, and sulfate were tested for trends for the period 1993–2012. Precipitation trends were compared between the three monitoring networks...
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Leachate from unlined or leaky landfills can create groundwater contaminant plumes that last decades to centuries. Understanding the dynamics of leachate movement in space and time is essential for monitoring, planning and management, and assessment of risk to groundwater and surface-water resources. Over a 23.4-year period (1986–2010), the spatial extent of the Norman Landfill leachate plume increased at a rate of 7800 m2/year and expanded by 878 %, from an area of 20,800 m2 in 1986 to 203,400 m2 in 2010. A linear plume velocity of 40.2 m/year was calculated that compared favorably to a groundwater-seepage velocity of 55.2 m/year. Plume-scale hydraulic conductivity values representative of actual hydrogeological...
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This study assessed potential bioaccumulation of various trace elements in grasses and earthworms as a consequence of soil incorporation of organic amendments for in situ remediation of an orchard field soil contaminated with organochlorine and Pb pesticide residues. In this experiment, four organic amendments of differing total organic carbon content and quality (two types of composted manure, composted biosolids, and biochar) were added to a contaminated orchard field soil, planted with two types of grasses, and tested for their ability to reduce bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metals in earthworms. The experiment was carried out in 4-L soil microcosms in a controlled environment for 90 days....
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Atmospheric deposition and above-ground cycling of sulfur (S) were evaluated in adjacent deciduous and coniferous forests at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW), Georgia U.S.A. Total atmospheric S deposition (wet plus dry) was 12.9 and 12.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 for the deciduous and coniferous forests, respectively, from October 1987 through November 1989. Dry deposition contributes more than 40% to the total atmospheric S deposition, and SO2 is the major source (~55%) of total dry S deposition. Dry deposition to these canopies is similar to regional estimates suggesting that 60-km proximity to emission sources does not noticeably impact dry deposition at PMRW. Below-canopy S fluxes (throughfall plus stemflow)...
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A study was undertaken to investigate differences between laboratory and field pH measurements for precipitation samples collected from 135 weekly precipitation-monitoring sites in the National Trends Network from 12/30/1986 to 12/28/1999. Differences in pH between field and laboratory measurements occurred for 96% of samples collected during this time period. Differences between the two measurements were evaluated for precipitation samples collected before and after January 1994, when modifications to sample-handling protocol and elimination of the contaminating bucket o-ring used in sample shipment occurred. Median hydrogen-ion and pH differences between field and laboratory measurements declined from 3.9 ??eq...
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A stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is described for potential use as an in situ, passive, integrative sampler for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in natural waters. The SLMD (patent pending) consists of a 2.5-cm-wide by 15-cm-long strip of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tubing containing 1 mL of an equal mixture (v/v) of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and EMO-8Q (7-[4-ethyl-1-methyloctyl]-8-quinolinol). The reagent mixture continuously diffuses to the exterior surface of the LDPE membrane, and provides for sequestration of several divalent metals for up to several weeks. Depending on sampler configuration, concentration factors of several thousand...
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This study compares mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) distribution in the soils of two forested stream watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, U.S.A. Cadillac Brook watershed, which burned in 1947, has thin soils and predominantly deciduous vegetation. It was compared to the unburned Hadlock Brook watershed, with thicker soil and predominantly coniferous vegetation. Soils in both watersheds were primarily well drained. The fire had a significant impact on the Cadillac watershed, by raising the soil pH, altering the vegetation, and reducing carbon and Hg pools. Total Hg content was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Hadlock soils (0.18 kg Hg ha-1) compared to Cadillac soils (0. 13 kg Hg ha-1). Hadlock O horizon...
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The method of single point, single application liming has been studied as a means of mitigating anthropogenic acid in trout streams in Virginia. Three critically acid sensitive streams were dosed with a total of five applications of limestone sand and monitored before, during and after the treatments to assess changes in water chemistry and biota. Limestone treatments of 8 to 50 tons (particle sizes 150–1000 μm), with the amounts based on sulfate deposition loading and existent stream water chemistry, were used to restore ‘lost’ acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). Contact time between the limestone bed in the stream bottom and the water was the limiting factor affecting the degree of treatment with bed length primarily...


map background search result map search result map Variables that affect agricultural chemicals in groundwater in Nebraska Variables that affect agricultural chemicals in groundwater in Nebraska