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Increasing the proportion of power derived from renewable energy sources is becoming an increasingly important part of many countries's strategies to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy investments can often have external costs and benefits, which need to be taken into account if socially optimal investments are to be made. This paper attempts to estimate the magnitude of these external costs and benefits for the case of renewable technologies in Scotland, a country which has set particularly ambitious targets for expanding renewable energy. The external effects we consider are those on landscape quality, wildlife and air quality. We also consider the welfare implications of...
A visual impact evaluation method specifically designed to assess landscape alteration as a result of surface mining and quarrying would represent a fundamental aid for both those involved in the early stages of mine planning and design (mining companies) and those in charge of controlling and verifying environmental impacts (government authorities). This research is based on implementation of the visual impact indicator Lvi, which takes into account two parameters among those physically measurable: the extent of visible alteration in the landscape and the chromatic contrast between bare rock and the surrounding environment. Both parameters can be quantified by processing one or more digital images taken from the...
Improved understanding of the innovative pathways of renewable energy technologies is vital if we are to make the transition to a low carbon economy. This study presents new evidence on innovation and industry dynamics in concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Though CSP is undergoing a renaissance, existing innovation studies have explored innovative activity in solar technologies in general, ignoring the major differences between solar photovoltaic and CSP technologies. This study, based on patent data, examines the level and dynamics of innovative activity in CSP between 1978 and 2004. Our unique contribution, based on engineering expertise and detailed datawork, is a classification system mapping CSP...
A visual impact evaluation method specifically designed to assess landscape alteration as a result of surface mining and quarrying would represent a fundamental aid for both those involved in the early stages of mine planning and design (mining companies) and those in charge of controlling and verifying environmental impacts (government authorities). This research is based on implementation of the visual impact indicator Lvi, which takes into account two parameters among those physically measurable: the extent of visible alteration in the landscape and the chromatic contrast between bare rock and the surrounding environment. Both parameters can be quantified by processing one or more digital images taken from the...