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Abstract (from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13550/abstract): Biological effects of climate change are expected to vary geographically, with a strong signature of latitude. For ectothermic animals, there is systematic latitudinal variation in the relationship between climate and thermal performance curves, which describe the relationship between temperature and an organism's fitness. Here, we ask whether these documented latitudinal patterns can be generalized to predict arthropod responses to warming across mid- and high temperate latitudes, for taxa whose thermal physiology has not been measured. To address this question, we used a novel natural experiment consisting of a series of urban warming...
Abstract (from http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/10/11/20140586?rss=1): Climate warming is predicted to cause many changes in ectotherm communities, one of which is phenological mismatch, wherein one species' development advances relative to an associated species or community. Phenological mismatches already lead to loss of pollination services, and we predict that they also cause loss of biological control. Here, we provide evidence that a pest develops earlier due to urban warming but that phenology of its parasitoid community does not similarly advance. This mismatch is associated with greater egg production that likely leads to more pests on trees. This publication was developed as part of the...
Abstract (from http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/283/1840/20161574): A substantial amount of global carbon is stored in mature trees. However, no experiments to date test how warming affects mature tree carbon storage. Using a unique, citywide, factorial experiment, we investigated how warming and insect herbivory affected physiological function and carbon sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem...
New research from North Carolina State University finds that urban warming reduces growth and photosynthesis in city trees. The researchers found that insect pests are part of the problem, but that heat itself plays a more significant role.