Filters: Tags: Tree Physiology (X)10 results (33ms)
Leaf gas exchange characteristics of three neotropical mangrove species in response to varying hydroperiod
We determined how different hydroperiods affected leaf gas exchange characteristics of greenhouse-grown seedlings (2002) and saplings (2003) of the mangrove species Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f., and Rhizophora mangle L. Hydroperiod treatments included no flooding (unflooded), intermittent flooding (intermittent), and permanent flooding (flooded). Plants in the intermittent treatment were measured under both flooded and drained states and compared separately. In the greenhouse study, plants of all species maintained different leaf areas in the contrasting hydroperiods during both years. Assimilation–light response curves indicated that the different hydroperiods had little...
Three major themes related to the improvement of salt tolerance in forest tree species are examined. First, evidence demonstrating that substantial intraspecific variation in salt tolerance exists in many species is presented. This evidence is important because it suggests that efforts to improve salt tolerance through conventional plant breeding techniques are justified. Second, the physiological and genetic mechanisms controlling salt tolerance are discussed briefly. Although salt tolerance involves the integration of numerous physiological processes, there is considerable evidence that differences in the ability to exclude Na+ and Cl- from leaves are the most important factors underlying intraspecific differences...
Carbon acquisition and water use in a Northern Utah Juniperus osteosperma (Utah juniper) population.
Water use and carbon acquisition were examined in a northern Utah population of Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little. Leaf-level carbon assimilation, which was greatest in the spring and autumn, was limited by soil water availability. Gas exchange, plant water potential and tissue hydrogen stable isotopic ratio (deltaD) data suggested that plants responded rapidly to summer rain events. Based on a leaf area index of 1.4, leaf-level water use and carbon acquisition scaled to canopy-level means of 0.59 mm day(-1) and 0.13 mol m(-2) ground surface day(-1), respectively. Patterns of soil water potential indicated that J. osteosperma dries the soil from the surface downward to a depth of about 1 m. Hydraulic redistribution...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Tree Physiology, deuterium, eddy covariance, gas exchange, hydraulic redistribution,
Cottonwoods (Populus spp.) are adapted to ripar-ian or floodplain zones throughout the Northern Hemisphere; they are also used as parents for fast-growing hybrid poplars. We review recent ecophysiological studies of the native cottonwoods Populus angustifolia James, P. balsamifera L., P. deltoides Marsh., P. fremontii S. Watson and P. trichocarpa T. & G. in North America, and P. nigra L. in Europe. Variation exists within and across species and hybrids; however, all riparian cottonwoods are dependent on shallow alluvial groundwater that is linked to stream water, particularly in semi-arid regions. This conclusion is based on studies of their natural occurrence, decline following river damming and dewatering (water...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Populus, Tree Physiology
Coastal wetlands of the southeastern United States are threatened by increases in flooding and salinity as a result of both natural processes and man-induced hydrologic alterations. Furthermore, global climate change scenarios suggest that, as a consequence of rising sea levels, much larger areas of coastal wetlands may be affected by flooding and salinity in the next 50 to 100 years. In this paper, we review studies designed to improve our ability to predict and ameliorate the impacts of increased flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), which is a dominant species of many coastal forested wetlands. Specifically, we review studies on species-level responses to flooding and salinity...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Acidic Deposition, Acids--Chemical Deposition, Air Pollution--Acid Rain, Atmospheric Deposition, Coniferous Forest,
The positive growth response of healthy young trees to density reduction is well known. In contrast, large old trees are usually thought to be intrinsically limited in their ability to respond to increased growing space; therefore, density reduction is seldom used in stands of old-growth trees. We tested the null hypothesis that old-growth trees are incapable of responding with increased growth following density reduction. The diameter growth response of 271 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) trees ranging in age from 158 to 650 years was examined 20 to 50 years after density reduction. Density reduction involved...
Effects of flooding on water transport in mangroves have previously been investigated in a few studies, most of which were conducted on seedlings in controlled settings. In this study, we used heat-dissipation sap probes to determine if sap flow (Js) attenuates with radial depth into the xylem of mature trees of three south Florida mangrove species growing in Rookery Bay. This was accomplished by inserting sap probes at multiple depths and monitoring diurnal flow. For most species and diameter size class combinations tested, Js decreased dramatically beyond a radial depth of 2 or 4 cm, with little sap flow beyond a depth of 6 cm. Mean Js was reduced on average by 20% in Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn, Laguncularia...
Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp,...
Root turnover and relocation in the soil profile in response to seasonal soil water variation in a natural stand of Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).
Juniper species are noted for long-lived foliage, low and persistent gas exchange activity and drought tolerance. Because leaves and roots of the same species are thought to be similar in structure and life history, we hypothesized that Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little (Utah juniper) fine roots would reflect the persistent aboveground foliage characteristic of this species. We monitored fine roots, less than 1 mm in diameter, by minirhizotron imaging to a depth of 150 cm over two growing seasons from April 2002 to December 2003. We measured fine root numbers, lengths and diameters, and noted the time of birth and death of root segments. We correlated our root data with soil water potential measured by thermocouple...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Tree Physiology, eddy flux, fine root dynamics, minirhizotron, root diameter,