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Burbot Lota lota are a key demersal piscivore across the Laurentian Great Lakes whose populations have declined by about 90% in recent decades. Larval Burbot typically hatch in the early spring and rely on abundant crustacean zooplankton prey. We examined the stomach contents of larval Burbot from inshore (≤15 m) and offshore sites (37 and 91 m) in northern Lake Huron, Michigan. Concurrent zooplankton vertical tows at the same sites showed that the prey community was dominated by calanoid copepods, dreissenid mussel veligers, and rotifers. Burbot consumed mostly cyclopoid copepods, followed by copepod nauplii and calanoid copepods. Chesson's index of selectivity was calculated and compared among sites and months...
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Adult American shad Alosa sapidissima were sampled with vertical gill nets during the 1986 and 1987 spawning and postspawning migrations in the Connecticut River. Most (83%) were caught in the lower half of the water column, but not on the river bottom. The vertical distributions of gravid and spent fish were similar for both males and females. American shad showed no diel, seasonal, or yearly changes in depth distributions. Larger gravid fish swam deeper in the water column than did smaller gravid fish.
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We tested the efficacy of a vertically oriented field of pulsed direct current (VEPDC) created by an array of vertical electrodes for guiding downstream-moving juvenile Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus to a bypass channel in an artificial flume at water velocities of 10–50 cm/s. Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel than in other sections of the flume regardless of electric field status (on or off) or water velocity. Additionally, Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active; however, an interaction between the effects of VEPDC and water velocity was observed, as the likelihood of capture decreased with increases in water velocity. The distribution...
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We used 10 microsatellite loci to examine the genetic population structure of cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki within the Lahontan Basin complex. Genetic diversity was analyzed for trout from Nevada, California, and Utah representing three putative subspecies: Lahontan O. c. henshawi, Paiute O. c. seleniris, and Humboldt (an unnamed subspecies) cutthroat trout. We found significant differences in microsatellite diversity among the three putative subspecies found in this area. Analysis of molecular variance partitioned microsatellite variation as 9.8% among subspecies, 27.7% among populations, and 62.5% within populations of Lahontan Basin cutthroat trout. Genetic distance analyses (Cavalli-Sforza-Edwards and...
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In highly managed reservoir systems, species interactions within novel fish assemblages can be difficult to predict. In high-elevation Scofield Reservoir in Utah the unintentional introduction of Utah Chub Gila atraria and subsequent population expansion prompted a shift from stocking exclusively Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to include tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) and Bonneville Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii utah, which composed a novel suite of top predators and potential competitors. We examined the interspecific interactions among Scofield Reservoir piscivores using a multifaceted approach including gut analyses, stable isotopes, and gape limitation....
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Land use activities often directly and indirectly limit the capacity of freshwater habitats to produce fish. Consequently, habitat creation and enhancement actions are often undertaken to increase the quantity and quality of resources available to aquatic communities within these impaired systems, with the intent to increase fish production. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine whether aquatic community colonization and development could be accelerated through additions of woody debris bundles and marine-derived nutrients (via salmon carcass analog pellets) and (2) measure how aquatic communities (biofilm, invertebrates, and fish) respond to these additions after the creation of off-channel (alcove)...
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We conducted a baseline study to better understand the migratory movements and age and spawning histories of American Shad Alosa sapidissima in the Penobscot River, Maine. The Penobscot River is currently undergoing a major dam removal project that is focused on restoring migratory connectivity and recovering diadromous fish populations including American Shad. This study addresses key data gaps for a previously unstudied native population of shad prior to restoration. A combination of radio- (n = 70) and acoustic telemetry (n = 14) was used to investigate the movements of migratory adult fish in 2010 and 2011. Scale-based analyses were used to assess spawner age and iteroparity. Radiotelemetry results indicated...
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The conservation of imperiled species depends upon understanding threats to the species at each stage of its life history. In the case of many imperiled migratory fishes, understanding how timing and environmental influences affect reproductive behavior could provide managers with information critical for species conservation. We used passive acoustic recorders to document spawning activities for two large-bodied catostomids (Robust Redhorse Moxostoma robustum in the Savannah and Broad rivers, Georgia, and River Redhorse M. carinatum in the Coosawattee River, Georgia) in relation to time of day, water temperature, discharge variation, moonlight, and weather. Robust Redhorse spawning activities in the Savannah and...
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Better knowledge of upstream migratory patterns of spawning Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive species in the Great Lakes, is needed to improve trapping for population control and assessment. Although trapping of adult Sea Lampreys provides the basis for estimates of lake-wide abundance that are used to evaluate the Sea Lamprey control program, traps have only been operated at dams due to insufficient knowledge of Sea Lamprey behavior in unobstructed channels. Acoustic telemetry and radiotelemetry were used to obtain movement tracks for 23 Sea Lampreys in 2008 and 18 Sea Lampreys in 2009 at two locations in the Mississagi River, Ontario. Cabled hydrophone arrays provided two-dimensional geographic positions...
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Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and kokanee (lacustrine Sockeye Salmon) commonly spawn in both lentic and lotic environments; however, the habitat requirements of shore spawners are virtually unknown relative to those of stream spawners. A laboratory experiment and an in situ incubation study were conducted to better understand the influence of habitat characteristics on the shoreline incubation success of kokanee. The laboratory experiment assessed kokanee intragravel survival, fry emergence, and fry condition in response to eight substrate treatments. The in situ study, conducted at three major shoreline spawning sites in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, evaluated the effect of depth, substrate composition, dissolved...
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Ages were determined and individual growth histories computed from the examination and measurement of scales from 820 yellow perch collected in 1929 and 1930. Calculated lengths greater than 101 millimeters were computed on the assumption (supported by empirical data) that the ratio of body length to scale length is constant. Lengths below 101 millimeters were determined with the aid of an empirical curve of the body-scale relationship of small fish. Yellow perch of age-groups III and IV (in the fourth and fifth years of life) made up the bulk of the collection (78 per cent). Females grew slightly more rapidly than males, but members of both sexes attained the legal length of 8 1/2 inches during the fourth year...
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The Mohawk River and New York State Barge Canal run together as a series of permanent and temporary impoundments for most of the distance between Rome and Albany, New York. The downstream or lower section is composed of two permanent impoundments, the middle section of a series of temporary (seasonal) impoundments, and the upper section of a series of permanent impoundments. In the middle section, movable dams are lifted from the water during winter and the wetted surface area decreases by 36–56%. We used boat electrofishing during spring 2014 and 2015 to compare the relative abundance of fish populations and the composition of fish assemblages between the permanently and seasonally impounded sections of the Barge...
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Annulus formation on opercula of the cui-ui Chasmistes cujus in Pyramid Lake, Nevada, was validated over an 8-year interval. Many fish were old, as old as 41 years of age, As many as three annuli were hidden (covered by supporting bone) in older fish. Growth was rapid during the first 10 years, slow from 10 to 20 years, and extremely slow or nil after 20 years. Age and growth were strongly correlated for about the first 10 years of life, but less so when fish became sexually mature. Examination of opercula of 15 additional species of large catostomids and cyprinids of western North America revealed that they were older than had previously been thought.
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The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and...
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Exposure of fourth instar larvae of Chironomus tentans to 2.0-8.0 mg/liter of TFM (3-trifluormethyl-4-nitrophenol) for 6 hr at 22 A? 0.5 C in soft water resulted in a significantly increased rate of larval oxygen consumption compared to that of control larvae, as measured with the Warburg respirometer. Maximum stimulation of oxygen consumption occurred with 8.0 mg/liter of TFM, and 1.0 mg/liter of TFM had no measurable effect on basal respiration. When hardness of exposure water was progressively increased, the effect of TFM on oxygen consumption was diminished. Bayer 73 (5,2'-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide) stimulated oxygen consumption at 0.75 and 1.0 mg/liter, had no significant effect at concentrations less...
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The fate of toxaphene, applied in three treatments at a total calculated concentration of 0.05 p.p.m. to Clayton Lake, New Mexico, was followed over a 1.5-year period. A detailed description of the chromatographic method of analysis is given. Water concentrations of toxaphene were higher in leeshore samples than in windward samples for 2 weeks after the application; toxaphene levels then appeared to reach a constant value of about 0.001 p.p.m. for at least an additional 250 days. Total body concentrations of toxaphene were determined in trout and bullheads present in the lake during the poisoning and in trout placed in the lake in live-cars subsequently. Trout were more susceptible to toxaphene and accumulated lower...
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A largemouth black bass fingerling preserved in formalin was sent to the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Pathology Laboratory at Seattle, Washington, during the autumn of 1937, by a hatchery employee at Miles City, Montana. The fish exhibited several wart-like protuberances on the caudal peduncle, which aroused the curiosity of Mr. H. C. Topel, in charge of fish distribution at Miles City. He had observed the gradually increasing numbers of these lesions on the fish at this station for several years previous to 1937. Mr. Topel estimated that in 1937, 20 per cent of the adult bass were infected at the time of distribution, and lesions were noted on the fingerling and yearling stock as well.