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This database contains literature citations and associated summaries pertaining to livestock grazing effects on amphibians and their habitats, with an emphasis on the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) and other listed/sensitive wetland-breeding amphibians in the western United States. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor did we perform a systematic meta-analysis; rather, literature records were included based on topical relevance. *HINT: If you are looking for the database SEARCH TOOL, scroll down to 'Attached Files' and download 'Annotated_bibliography_with_search_tool.accdb.' Open the database file to enter the search form.* This data release supersedes Rowe, J.C., Pearl, C.A., Adams, M.J., and McCreary,...
1. 1. The rates of rehydration from a varying soil particle size was investigated for two species of toads, Bufo boreas and Bufo punctatus. 2. 2. Both species of toads were found to gain comparatively equal rates of water per unit of surface area, about 40 mg/cm2 per hr. However, the larger surface area to volume ratio of B. punctatus allows this anuran to regain its deficit at a significantly faster rate than B. boreas. B. punctatus showed rates of about 3 per cent standard weight gain per hr while B. boreas showed rates of about 1.5 per cent standard weight gain per hr. 3. 3. It is proposed that a reduced size (i.e. increased surface area to volume ratio) may be an important adaptation to xeric environments. Published...