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This discussion draws upon the author's experience with the US General Accounting Offices's Energy Planning Review Team, which analyzed the planning processes and procedures (as well as the products) used by the US Department of Energy. It suggests that the DOE's preoccupation with 'rational' planning techniques in the face of incremental political and organizational realities explains many of the recent energy policy failures. These failures, however, viewed through an 'adaptive-learning' perspective provide valuable clues to potentially more successful analytical activities, and eventually, perhaps, more rational and systematic energy policies.
Energy and material flows are closely related. The materials system is of major significance from a national energy and CO z point of view. Integrated energy and materials studies can show significant new policy options for energy savings and CO z emission reduction through materials system improvements, shown in a case study on long-term CO 2 emission reduction in the Netherlands. An integrated energy and materials system MARKAL model is used for this analysis. The results show that, on one hand, CO z emission reduction costs are significantly reduced in the integrated approach and, on the other hand, the materials system is significantly influenced by CO z emission reduction. Consideration of dynamic interactions...