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Using long-term data records, this project is focused on two problems of importance to water resources managers. First, long-term streamflow records are being used to a) identify broad regional to national trends in floods and low-flows and relate them to possible causes (climate change, water management changes, land-cover changes, and ground-water level change) and b) determine whether there are patterns that relate to watershed size or climate characteristics. It is often stated in the popular press and in official publications on global climate change that we can expect increased variability, including larger and/or more frequent floods, and deeper and longer droughts, as a result of greenhouse warming. This...
The NRP had its beginnings in the late 1950's. Since that time, the program has grown to encompass a broad spectrum of scientific investigations. The sciences of hydrology, mathematics, chemistry, physics, ecology, biology, geology, and engineering are used to gain a fundamental understanding of the processes that affect the availability, movement, and quality of the Nation's water resources. Results of NRP's long-term research investigations often lead to the development of new concepts, techniques, and approaches that are applicable not only to the solution of current water problems, but also to future issues that may affect the Nation's water resources. Basic tools of hydrology that have been developed by the...
Categories: Project; Types: ScienceBase Project; Tags: Acid Mine Drainage, Aquatic Habitat, Arid Land Hydrology, Carbon Cycle, Contaminant Reactions and Transport, All tags...
Toxic contaminants and naturally occurring substances found in the subsurface can exist in multiple phases, and undergo complex reactions including biodegradation. A comprehensive and quantitative understanding of the processes controlling the fate and transport of subsurface contaminants is necessary to develop policies and strategies for managing water-quality conditions in different land use and environmental settings. Numerical models that simulate flow, transport, and reactions are useful tools for understanding the fate of chemicals in the subsurface when used in conjunction with field and laboratory studies. The research efforts of this project consider flow and chemical behavior in the saturated and unsaturated...
Improve understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes affecting water quality of groundwater and surface water. Research focus includes multidisciplinary field and laboratory studies to determine factors affecting sources, movement, and fate of nutrients and reactive inorganic contaminants in the hydrologic cycle. Improve the usefulness of stable isotopes and other environmental tracers in hydrology and biogeochemistry by developing new techniques and approaches. Research topics include analytical techniques for stable isotopes in compounds separated from groundwater and surface water, stable isotope forensics, enriched isotope tracer experiments to quantify transport and reaction rates, field and...
Although a major effort has been made to understand the hydrodynamics of surface waters, less effort has been devoted to the study of transport mechanisms and to the development and validation of computational models for simulating the transport of dissolved and suspended materials. Recent progress in hydrodynamics has created additional opportunities for advances in surface- water transport. It may be possible to develop and validate more physically correct descriptions of transport processes in terms of flow characteristics than have been previously available. Microscale processes must be expressed at the macroscale level by algorithms which can be validated in computational models using laboratory and field data....
This project studies evaporation, groundwater mixing, surface-water circulation, groundwater/surface-water interactions, contaminant migration and remediation, and other hydrochemical and biologic processes. The isotope variations are related to (1) purely physical processes, (2) heterogeneous chemical equilibria, and (3) reaction kinetics. The isotope effects of many of these processes are not sufficiently understood or quantified to make the most effective use of stable isotope techniques in hydrologic research. This project aims to develop theoretical and instrumental mass spectrometric techniques through experimental investigation, and to test applications in suitable field locations to improve the utility of...
There is a general lack of knowledge of fundamental processes governing the fate and transport of anthropogenic organic compounds in surface and ground waters. Interactions of organic contaminants with natural organic coatings on sediments and aquifer porous media are not well understood. Furthermore, abiotic and biological transformations of organic contaminants in surface and ground waters require extensive fundamental investigations if their effects on Water Quality are to be understood. Objectives are to (1) determine physicochemical and biological processes, controlling the fate and transport of organic compounds in surface and ground waters; (2) determine bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants...