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Climatic fluctuations have profound effects on water resources variability in the western United States. The effects are manifested in several ways and scales particularly in the occurrence, frequency, and magnitude of extreme events. The project reported herein centers on streamflow predictability at the medium and long range scales in the headwaters of the Colorado River that originates in the State of Colorado. Specifically, we want to improve the capability of forecasting seasonal and yearly flows. The study includes the seasonal and yearly streamflows in the Yampa, Gunnison, and San Juan rivers. For comparison three rivers that drain to the Gulf of Mexico are also included, namely Poudre, Arkansas, and Rio...
Policymakers traditionally focus on regulating operational energy use in buildings, ignoring other life cycle components such as embodied energy even though this may account for a significant portion of life cycle emissions. Data relating to embodied energy and emissions in buildings is limited. However, stochastic techniques can be used to estimate the distribution of such emissions from buildings. This helps policymakers identify which instruments are appropriate for achieving emissions reductions. A primary aim of this paper is to demonstrate this approach using a sample of apartment buildings in Ireland. A Monte-Carlo simulation suggests that the average probability distribution of embodied greenhouse gases...