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The expansion of protected areas is a critical component of strategies to promote the continued existence of biodiversity (i.e., life at all levels of biological organization) as climate changes, but scientific, social, and economic uncertainties associated with climate change are some of the major obstacles preventing such expansion. New models of climate change and species distribution and new methods of conservation planning now make it possible to explore the uncertainties associated with climate changes and species responses. Yet few reliable estimates of the costs of expanding protected areas and methods for determining these costs exist, largely because of the many (and uncertain) determinants of these costs....
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This dataset contains reflectance and transmission spectra of unexpanded and expanded vermiculite ore, and handpicked flakes of phlogopite, hydrobiotite, and vermiculite. These samples were collected from mines near Enoree, South Carolina; Libby, Montana; Louisa, Virginia; Palabora, Llano, Texas; and South Africa. Spectra are identified as either reflectance or transmission in the alphanumeric file names and correlate to specpr record numbers designated in the manuscript figures in which they are shown. These transmission spectra were converted to absorbance in many of the figures. Spectra of talc, fibrous richterite amphibole, and serpentine are from well characterized samples from Feiser Mine, Ruby Mountains,...
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The Critical Minerals in Archived Mine Samples Database (CMDB) contains chemistry and geologic information for historic ore and ore-related rock samples from mineral deposits in the United States. In addition, the database contains samples from archetypal deposits from 27 other countries in North America, South America, Asia, Africa and Europe. Samples were obtained from archived ore collections under the U.S. Geological Survey's project titled "Quick Assessment of Rare and Critical Metals in Ore Deposits: A National Assessment" (2008 to 2013) in an effort to begin an assessment of the Nations' previously mined ore deposits for critical minerals. Mineralized and altered rock samples were provided by the Colorado...
Categories: Data; Types: ArcGIS REST Map Service, ArcGIS Service Definition, Downloadable, Map Service, OGC WFS Layer, OGC WMS Layer, Shapefile; Tags: Alaska, Argentina, Arizona, Arkansas, Australia, All tags...
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This dataset contains results from electron microprobe analyses for expanded and unexpanded vermiculite samples. These data are provide for samples of vermiculite ore, expanded vermiculite insulation, horticultural products, aggregate, and packing materials derived from mines near Enoree, South Carolina; Libby, Montana; Louisa, Virginia; Palabora, South Africa; Jiangsu, China; and Llano, Texas. An ASCII text file of results is provided in comma-separated by value (csv) format. The file has the name “vermiculite_probe_microanalyses_data.csv”.
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This dataset contains descriptions and analytical data (i.e., electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction, spectral reflectance, and scanning electron microprobe analyses) for unexpanded and expanded vermiculite samples. These data are provided for 52 samples of vermiculite attic insulation, horticultural products, aggregate, and packing materials derived from mines near Enoree, South Carolina; Libby, Montana; Louisa, Virginia; Palabora, South Africa; and Jiangsu, China collected from 2000 to 2016. Electron probe microanalysis and spectra of unexpanded ores from these locations and Llano, Texas are also given. Tables of electron microprobe and spectral absorption information are also included along with ascii listings...
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Pollen morphology and pollen morphology in conjunction with other characteristics have elucidated the origin and evolution of various plant groups. Many studies of fossil pollen rarely discuss the effects of diagenesis and sample preparation on pollen characteristics. This paper examines the relationship of diagenesis, sample preparation (e.g., acetolysis), and staining techniques on the preservation and interpretation of pollen characteristics viewed with light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Based on empirical studies, different species under similar experimental conditions have different reflectance values, indicating the individual species respond differently to diagenetic events. The quantitative...
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This folder contains descriptions and analytical data (i.e., electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction, spectral reflectance, and scanning electron microprobe analyses) for unexpanded and expanded vermiculite samples. These data are provided for 52 samples of vermiculite attic insulation, horticultural products, aggregate, and packing materials derived from mines near Enoree, South Carolina; Libby, Montana; Louisa, Virginia; Palabora, South Africa; and Jiangsu, China collected from 2000 to 2016. X-ray diffraction data for a limited set of the 52 expanded vermiculite samples are also given in figures included in the sample description pdf files. Quantitative XRD diffractograms are included for an ore sample from each...
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This geodatabase reflects the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) ongoing commitment to its mission of understanding the nature and distribution of global mineral commodity supply chains by updating and publishing the georeferenced locations of mineral commodity production and processing facilities, mineral exploration and development sites, and mineral commodity exporting ports in Africa. The geodatabase and geospatial data layers serve to create a new geographic information product in the form of a geospatial portable document format (PDF) map. The geodatabase contains data layers from USGS, foreign governmental, and open-source sources as follows: (1) mineral production and processing facilities, (2) mineral exploration...
Tags: Africa, Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, All tags...
Mangroves are species of halophytic intertidal trees and shrubs derived from tropical genera and are likely delimited in latitudinal range by varying sensitivity to cold. There is now sufficient evidence that mangrove species have proliferated at or near their poleward limits on at least five continents over the past half century, at the expense of salt marsh. Avicennia is the most cold-tolerant genus worldwide, and is the subject of most of the observed changes. Avicennia germinans has extended in range along the USA Atlantic coast and expanded into salt marsh as a consequence of lower frost frequency and intensity in the southern USA. The genus has also expanded into salt marsh at its southern limit in Peru,...
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Bottom simulating reflections (BSRs) are seismic features that are imaged in marine sediments using high-energy, impulsive seismic sources such as air guns or generator-injector guns. BSRs often cut across sediment stratigraphy and are interpreted as marking the deepest depth at which gas hydrate can exist. Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring and widely distributed frozen form of water and gas (usually methane) stable at low temperatures (up to about 25 degrees Celsius [°C]) and intermediate pressures (those that usually correspond to greater than 500 meters water depth). BSRs have been mapped in all the world’s oceans, in inland seas (such as the Black Sea), and in Lake Baikal in Russia. This data release consists...
Categories: Data; Types: Map Service, OGC WFS Layer, OGC WMS Layer, OGC WMS Service; Tags: Alaska, Amazonia, Antarctica, Arctic, Argentina, All tags...
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6, Abstract (Limit: 200 words) of economic This Country Documentation Report presents the development and updating It supplements the Phase I indices for South Africa for the period from 1970 through 1983. Country Documentation Report for South Africa which presents the development of economic The work was done through the Bureau of Mines, indices for the period 1970 through 1981. contract calls for the Minerals Availability Program, under Contract Number J0225001. This in the mining sector development of twelve index time series describing factor input costs 1) mining wages, 2) The twelve index time series describe the costs of: of 95 countries. steel, 5) timber and construction wages, 3) equipment and repair parts,...
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Data are provide for four samples of unexpanded vermiculite ore from mines near Enoree, South Carolina; Libby, Montana; Louisa, Virginia; Palabora, and South Africa. ASCII text files listings of Mossbauer data for each sample are provided in comma-separated by value (csv) files. These files have the file naming structure sampleid_mossbauer_spectra.csv, where sampleid is a unique alphanumeric code for each sample. These samples were chosen as representative of the ores from their various mine sources, having documentation verifying that they were collected directly from their sources.
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This dataset contains spectral parameters for absorption features found in reflectance spectra of expanded vermiculite samples. These data are provide for 52 samples of vermiculite attic insulation, horticultural products, aggregate, and packing materials derived from mines near Enoree, South Carolina; Libby, Montana; Louisa, Virginia; Palabora, South Africa; and Jiangsu, China collected from 2000 to 2016. Also included are two tables listing the spectral parameters for reflectance spectra of four expanded vermiculite samples selected to represent each of the four main historical sources of vermiculite (e.g., Libby, Montana; Enoree, South Carolina; Louisa, Virginia; and Palabora, South Africa) taken at normal spectral...
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In September 1985, the Chairman of the Transportation, Aviation and , Materials Subcommittee of the House of Representatives requested that the Director of the Bureau of Mines address the issue of South Africa and critical materials dependency in testimony before the Subcommittee. Subsequent to the testimony, the Bureau has prepared a technical report focusing on the importance of South Africa and, in some cases, its neighboring countries as suppliers of six key materials. The report includes a qualitative analysis which examines the supply shortfall resulting from a potential disruption, options that are available for mitigating the impact, and their likely effectiveness, and quantitative analyses which estimate...
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Crystalline graphite is a primary material in lithium-ion battery anodes which are essential in moving towards green energy. Forecasts for 2040 anticipate an order of magnitude increase in graphite demand driven by sustainable development policies to reduce carbon emissions. Domestic production of graphite ceased in the 1980s after a steady decline post-World War I, meaning the United States relies on natural graphite imports from producers such as China or high-cost synthetic graphite. The current crystalline graphite flake model was released in 1992 and used 100 sites with graphite production. The updated grade and tonnage model uses 72 graphite sites with reports of flake graphite. The updated model implies economically...
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This data release presents the Yale stocks and flows database (YSTAFDB). Its data describe the use of 102 materials from the early 1800s to circa 2013 through anthropogenic cycles, their recycling and criticality properties, and on spatial scales ranging from suburbs to global. This data collection was previously scattered across multiple non-uniformly formatted files such as journal papers, reports, and unpublished spreadsheets. These data have been synthesized into YSTAFDB, which is presented as individual comma-separated text files and also in MySQL and PostgreSQL database formats. Consolidation of these data into a single database can increase their accessibility and reusability, which is relevant to diverse...
Categories: Data; Tags: AFGHANISTAN, ALBANIA, ALGERIA, ANDORRA, ANGOLA, All tags...
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Possible consequences of continuing internal political unrest and the imposition of foreign sanctions raise concerns about the traditional reliability of the Republic of South Africa as a major world supplier of important minerals. A recent Bureau of Mines' technical report (Open File Report 76 -86) examined the impacts of temporary peacetime disruption scenarios for six key materials and mitigating options. Because of South Africa's dominant producer position for these minerals (except for cobalt), expansion of primary production capacity outside of South Africa is not a short term mitigative option. However, prospects of a longer term disruption would likely spur investment in capacity expansion in alternative...


map background search result map search result map Spectroscopy of Expanded Vermiculite Products and Insulation Mössbauer Spectral Data of Vermiculite Ore Expanded Vermiculite Sample Descriptions Table of Electron Probe Microanalyses of Vermiculite Samples Spectra Used in Figures Spectral Parameter Tables for Expanded Vermiculite Samples Global Geochemical Database for Critical Minerals in Archived Mine Samples Compilation of Geospatial Data (GIS) for the Mineral Industries and Related Infrastructure of Africa Reflectance and spectral fluorescence data from the effect of diagenesis on the preservation of morphology and ultrastructural features of pollen Global compilation of published gas hydrate-related bottom simulating reflections OFR 19-88 - Estimated Direct Economic Impacts of U.S. Import Embargo on Strategic & Critical Minerals Produced in South Africa. 1988. OFR 54-88 - Estimated Impacts on U.S. Gross National Product (GNP) and Employment Resulting from a U.S. Embargo on South African Platinum Group Metal Supplies. 1988. OFR 74-85 - Development of Foreign Economic Indices, Phase II Update for South Africa. 1985. OFR 76-86 - South Africa and Critical Materials. 1986. OFR 95-86 - Availability of Strategic and Critical Minerals: Role of the Republic of South Africa. 1986. OFR 164-84 - Development of Foreign Economic Indices: Phase I for South Africa. 1984. Grade and tonnage data for disseminated flake graphite deposits OFR 19-88 - Estimated Direct Economic Impacts of U.S. Import Embargo on Strategic & Critical Minerals Produced in South Africa. 1988. OFR 54-88 - Estimated Impacts on U.S. Gross National Product (GNP) and Employment Resulting from a U.S. Embargo on South African Platinum Group Metal Supplies. 1988. OFR 74-85 - Development of Foreign Economic Indices, Phase II Update for South Africa. 1985. OFR 76-86 - South Africa and Critical Materials. 1986. OFR 95-86 - Availability of Strategic and Critical Minerals: Role of the Republic of South Africa. 1986. OFR 164-84 - Development of Foreign Economic Indices: Phase I for South Africa. 1984. Spectroscopy of Expanded Vermiculite Products and Insulation Mössbauer Spectral Data of Vermiculite Ore Expanded Vermiculite Sample Descriptions Table of Electron Probe Microanalyses of Vermiculite Samples Spectra Used in Figures Spectral Parameter Tables for Expanded Vermiculite Samples Compilation of Geospatial Data (GIS) for the Mineral Industries and Related Infrastructure of Africa Reflectance and spectral fluorescence data from the effect of diagenesis on the preservation of morphology and ultrastructural features of pollen Grade and tonnage data for disseminated flake graphite deposits Global Geochemical Database for Critical Minerals in Archived Mine Samples Global compilation of published gas hydrate-related bottom simulating reflections