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Dam removal is a potentially powerful tool for restoring riverine habitats and communities. However, the effectiveness of this tool is unknown because published data on the effects of dam removal on in-stream biota are lacking. We investigated the effects of a small dam removal on unionid mussels in Koshkonong Creek, Wisconsin (USA). Removal of the dam led to mortality both within the former impoundment and in downstream reaches. Within the former reservoir, mortality rates were extremely high (95%) due to des- iccation and exposure. Mussel densities in a bed 0.5 km downstream from the dam declined from 3.80 ± 0.56 mussels m)2 in fall 2000 immediately after dam removal to 2.60 ± 0.48 mussels m)2 by summer 2003....