Filters: Tags: Scales (X)2 results (30ms)
Winter resource selection of reintroduced elk and sympatric white-tailed deer at multiple spatial scales
Understanding limiting factors and interspecific interactions is fundamental to wildlife management and can be inferred from multiscale patterns of resource selection. We studied winter resource selection and overlap of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and translocated female elk (Cervus elaphus) over 2 winters in central Ontario, Canada. Microhabitat data were collected along 4 organism-centered spatial scales: site, trail, feeding station, and diet. Although winter conditions varied between years, white-tailed deer consistently traveled and fed in habitats with greater coniferous basal area than elk. Neither species demonstrated selection for coniferous basal area or snow depth across scales. At successively...
The matter of spatial and temporal scales: A review of reindeer and caribou response to human activity
The main concept currently in use in wind energy involves horizontal-axis wind turbines with blades of fiber composite materials. This turbine concept is expected to remain as the major provider of wind power in the foreseeable future. However, turbine sizes are increasing, and installation offshore means that wind turbines will be exposed to more demanding environmental conditions. Many challenges are posed by the use of fiber composites in increasingly large blades and increasingly hostile environments. Among these are achieving adequate stiffness to prevent excessive blade deflection, preventing buckling failure, ensuring adequate fatigue life under variable wind loading combined with gravitational loading, and...