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A new species of poplar is recognized based on abundant specimens from the early Middle Eocene Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation in eastern Utah and western Colorado and compared with two other contemporary species. A rare twig bearing both leaves and fruits serves as a Rosetta stone, linking the vegetative and reproductive structures that formerly were only known from dispersed organs. Fruit and foliage characters distinguish Populus tidwellii sp. n. from Populus cinnamomoides (Lesquereux) MacGinitie (typified on specimens from Green River Station, WY), to which the isolated leaves had formerly been attributed. In addition, new data from fruits and foliage confirm that there were two distinct...
Beavers (Castor canadensis Kuhl) can influence the competitive dynamics of plant species through selective foraging, collection of materials for dam creation, and alteration of hydrologic conditions. In the Grand Canyon National Park, the native Salix gooddingii C.R.Ball (Goodding?s willow) and Salix exigua Nutt. (coyote willow) are a staple food of beavers. Because Salix competes with the invasive Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb., land mangers are concerned that beavers may cause an increase in Tamarix through selective foraging of Salix. A spatial analysis was conducted to assess whether the presence of beavers correlates with the relative abundance of Salix and Tamarix. These methods were designed to detect a system-wide...
Environmental flows have become important restoration tools on regulated rivers. However, environmental flows are often constrained by other demands within the river system and thus typically are comprised of smaller water volumes than the natural flows they are meant to replace, which can limit their functional efficacy. We review environmental flow programs aimed at restoring riparian vegetation on four arid zone rivers: the Tarim River in China; the Bill Williams River in Arizona, U.S.; the delta of the Colorado River in Mexico; and the Murrumbidgee River in southern Australia. Our goal is to determine what worked and what did not work to accomplish restoration goals. The lower Tarim River in China formerly formed...
Tamarix spp. removal has been proposed to salvage water and allow native vegetation to recolonize western U.S. riparian corridors. We conducted wide-area studies on the Lower Colorado River to answer some of the scientific questions about Tamarix water use and the consequences of removal, combining ground surveys with remote sensing methods. Tamarix stands had moderate rates of evapotranspiration (ET), based on remote sensing estimates, averaging 1.1 m/yr, similar to rates determined for other locations on the river and other rivers. Leaf area index values were also moderate, and stands were relatively open, with areas of bare soil interspersed within stands. At three Tamarix sites in the Cibola National Wildlife...
This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA strategic goals centered on agricultural production. These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation programs....
This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA strategic goals centered on agricultural production. These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation programs....
Drastic alterations to river hydrology, land use change, and the spread of the nonnative shrub, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), have led to the degradation of riparian habitat in the Colorado River Delta in Mexico. Delivery of environmental flows to promote native cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) recruitment in human-impacted riparian systems can be unsuccessful due to flow-magnitude constraints and altered abiotic–biotic feedbacks. In 2014, an experimental pulse flow of water was delivered to the Colorado River in Mexico as part of the U.S.-Mexico binational agreement, Minute 319. We conducted a field experiment to assess the effects of vegetation removal, seed augmentation, and environmental flows, separately...
1. Riparian vegetation in dry regions is influenced by low-flow and high-flow components of the surface and groundwater flow regimes. The duration of no-flow periods in the surface stream controls vegetation structure along the low-flow channel, while depth, magnitude and rate of groundwater decline influence phreatophytic vegetation in the floodplain. Flood flows influence vegetation along channels and floodplains by increasing water availability and by creating ecosystem disturbance. 2. On reference rivers in Arizona's Sonoran Desert region, the combination of perennial stream flows, shallow groundwater in the riparian (stream) aquifer, and frequent flooding results in high plant species diversity and landscape...
Managing streamflow is a widely-advocated approach to provide conditions necessary for seed germination and seedling establishment of trees in the willow family (Salicaceae). Experimental flow releases to the Colorado River delta in 2014 had a primary objective of promoting seedling establishment of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Goodding's willow (Salix gooddingii). We assessed seed germination and seedling establishment of these taxa as well as the non-native tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) and native seepwillow shrubs (Baccharis spp.) in the context of seedling requirements and active land management (land grading, vegetation removal) at 23 study sites along 87 river km. In the absence of associated active...
Willow communities dominate mid-elevation riparian areas throughout the Rocky Mountains of North America. However, many willow stands are rapidly declining in aerial cover and individual plants in stature. A poor understanding of the processes that control willow establishment hinders identifying the causes of this decline. We analysed the processes that have facilitated or limited willow establishment over the last half of the 20th century on two large floodplains in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado by addressing two questions: (1) How does hydrologic regime control willow establishment on different fluvial landforms? (2) How might climate-driven variations in hydrologic regime affect future willow establishment?...
This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA strategic goals centered on agricultural production. These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation programs....
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This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA strategic goals centered on agricultural production. These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation programs....
This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA strategic goals centered on agricultural production. These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation programs....
The resilience of willow (Salix monticola Bebb, Salix geyeriana Anderss., Salix planifolia Pursh) stems released from intense elk (Cervus elaphus) browsing in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, was quantified in 1998 with a retrospective study that compared biomass, number, and length of segments on willow stems located inside (protected) and outside (browsed) elk exclosures. Segment biomass increased each year after protection by about 3?12 g year?1 on browsed stems and 10?27 g year?1 on protected stems. The number of segments on stems was similar for browsed and protected stems in the first 2 years after exclusion but differed in the next 3 years, when they increased exponentially on protected stems. Nearly...
To identify potential constraints on willow (Salix spp.) seedling establishment in montane riparian communities in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA we established a controlled experiment to examine the effects of soil texture and elevation above river stage on willow seedling survival. We followed seedling survival rates over two summers in paired course- and fine-textured plots established at three elevations on study area point bars. Patterns of seedling survival changed over the course of the study, and after two growing seasons, greater seedling survival rates were observed in fine-textured plots and plots occurring at high and intermediate elevations. Our results indicate that both soil water availability...
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The data release presents observations of riparian vegetation, topography, and ground cover in two river reaches of the Upper Colorado River within a river segment extending 208 river kilometers (rkm), from near the Colorado/Utah border to the confluence of the Green River. Methods included field observations and analysis of the plant community five times over eight years in the fall of 2010, 2012, 2013, 2015 and 2017, encompassing a second cycle of biocontrol-induced dieback of invasive Tamarix spp. shrubs. The data release includes four .csv files related to field observations: UTM coordinates of field transects; vegetation, topography and ground surface information at the pinpoint level and at the transect level;...
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This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA strategic goals centered on agricultural production. These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation programs....
Ground-water and surface flow depletions are altering riparian ecosystems throughout the southwestern United States, and have contributed to the decline of forests of the pioneer trees Populus fremontii (Fremont cottonwood) and Salix gooddingii (Goodding willow). On some rivers, these forests have been replaced by shrublands of Tamarix ramosissima (tamarisk), a drought-tolerant species from Eurasia. The physiological response of these three riparian plant species to decreases in water availability is well studied, but little attention has been given to shifts in community and population structure in response to declines in surface flow and ground-water levels. Based on study of 17 sites spanning a hydrologic gradient,...


map background search result map search result map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_ne_14_1_20150729_20151103 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_nw_14_1_20150729_20151103 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_se_14_1_20150729_20151103 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_sw_14_1_20150729_20151103 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_nw_14_h_20160813_20161019 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_sw_14_h_20160813_20161019 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map USGS 1:24000-scale Quadrangle for Salix, IA 1964 USGS 1:24000-scale Quadrangle for Salix, IA 1964 Riparian vegetation, topography, and ground cover constituents along the Upper Colorado River near Moab, UT (2010-2017) (ver. 1.1, Jan 2023) FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_ne_14_1_20150729_20151103 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_nw_14_1_20150729_20151103 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_se_14_1_20150729_20151103 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_sw_14_1_20150729_20151103 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_nw_14_h_20160813_20161019 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_sw_14_h_20160813_20161019 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map USGS 1:24000-scale Quadrangle for Salix, IA 1964 USGS 1:24000-scale Quadrangle for Salix, IA 1964 Riparian vegetation, topography, and ground cover constituents along the Upper Colorado River near Moab, UT (2010-2017) (ver. 1.1, Jan 2023)