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The primary purpose of this project is to acquire long-term data series ontemperature of selected lakes to support management of nursery habitat of lakerearingjuvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to climatechange. We adopted protocol developed by the National Park Service (NPS) toestablish moored all-season vertical temperature monitoring arrays in eight lakesof Kodiak, Togiak, and Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuges(NWR) in summer and fall 2011. We recorded lake temperature at a resolution of0.02°C on an hourly basis at various depth strata between lake surfaces and lakebottoms. Monitoring sites were visited annually or biannially to extract data andto service monitoring equipment....
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Floods, spatially complex water flows, and organism movements all generate important fluxes of aquatic-derived materials into terrestrial habitats, counteracting the gravity-driven downhill transport of matter from terrestrial-to-aquatic ecosystems. The magnitude of these aquatic subsidies isoften smaller than terrestrial subsidies to aquatic ecosystems but higher in nutritional quality, energy density, and nutrient concentration. The lateral extent of biological aquatic subsidies is typically small, extending only a few meters into riparian habitat; however, terrestrial consumers often aggregate on shorelines to capitalize on these high-quality resources. Although the ecological effects of aquatic subsidies remain...
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How local geomorphic and hydrologic features mediate the sensitivity of stream thermal regimes to variation in climatic conditions remains a critical uncertainty in understanding aquatic ecosystem responses to climate change. We used stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen to estimate contributions of snow and rainfall to 80 boreal streams and show that differences in snow contribution are controlled by watershed topography. Time series analysis of stream thermal regimes revealed that streams in rain-dominated, low-elevation watersheds were 5–8 times more sensitive to variation in summer air temperature compared to streams draining steeper topography whose flows were dominated by snowmelt. This effect was more pronounced...
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In this first worldwide synthesis of in situ and satellite-derived lake data, we find that lakesummer surface water temperatures rose rapidly (global mean = 0.34°C decade1) between 1985 and2009. Our analyses show that surface water warming rates are dependent on combinations of climate andlocal characteristics, rather than just lake location, leading to the counterintuitive result that regionalconsistency in lake warming is the exception, rather than the rule. The most rapidly warming lakes are widelygeographically distributed, and their warming is associated with interactions among different climatic factors—from seasonally ice-covered lakes in areas where temperature and solar radiation are increasing whilecloud...
Viable sockeye salmon populations are critical to the economy, culture, and freshwater ecosystems of Bristol Bay in Western Alaska, and it is unclear how populations might respond to warming temperatures during the critical life history stages of spawning and embryo incubation. The overarching goal of the project is to understand how temperature might influence population-specific patterns of embryo incubation, timing of hatching and fry emergence, and sockeye salmon embryo survival. By combining analyses of data from two large lake systems in the Kvichak watershed, laboratory rearing experiments to elucidate functional relationships, and simulation modeling, this project quantifies biological responses to changing...
Categories: Data, Project; Types: Map Service, OGC WFS Layer, OGC WMS Layer, OGC WMS Service; Tags: Academics & scientific researchers, CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ASSESSMENT MODELS, CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ASSESSMENT MODELS, DATA REFORMATTING, DATA REFORMATTING, All tags...
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When resources are spatially and temporally variable, consumers can increasetheir foraging success by moving to track ephemeral feeding opportunitiesas these shift across the landscape; the best examples derive from herbivore–plant systems, where grazers migrate to capitalize on the seasonal waves ofvegetation growth. We evaluated whether analogous processes occur in watershedssupporting spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), askingwhether seasonal activities ofpredators and scavengers shift spatial distributionsto capitalize on asynchronous spawning among populations of salmon. Bothglaucous-winged gulls and coastal brown bears showed distinct shifts in theirspatial distributions over the course of the summer,...
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The primary purpose of this project is to acquire long-term data series ontemperature of selected lakes to support management of nursery habitat of lakerearingjuvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to climatechange. We adopted protocol developed by the National Park Service (NPS) toestablish moored all-season vertical temperature monitoring arrays in eight lakesof Kodiak, Togiak, and Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuges(NWR) in summer and fall 2011. We recorded lake temperature at a resolution of0.02°C on an hourly basis at various depth strata between lake surfaces and lakebottoms. Monitoring sites were visited annually or biannially to extract data andto service monitoring equipment....
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Global environmental change has influenced lake surface temperatures, a key driver of ecosystem structureand function. Recent studies have suggested significant warming of water temperatures in individual lakesacross many different regions around the world. However, the spatial and temporal coherence associatedwith the magnitude of these trends remains unclear. Thus, a global data set of water temperature isrequired to understand and synthesize global, long-term trends in surface water temperatures of inlandbodies of water. We assembled a database of summer lake surface temperatures for 291 lakes collectedin situ and/or by satellites for the period 1985–2009. In addition, corresponding climatic drivers (airtemperatures,...
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How local geomorphic and hydrologic features mediate the sensitivity of stream thermal regimesto variation in climatic conditions remains a critical uncertainty in understanding aquatic ecosystem responsesto climate change.We used stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen to estimate contributions of snow and rainfallto 80 boreal streams and show that differences in snow contribution are controlled by watershed topography.Time series analysis of streamthermal regimes revealed that streams in rain-dominated, low-elevation watershedswere 5–8 times more sensitive to variation in summer air temperature compared to streams draining steepertopography whose flows were dominated by snowmelt. This effect wasmore pronounced...
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This report is structured around the specific objectives in the format of three stand-alone manuscripts that are in the process of submission to peer-reviewed journals. The first manuscript includes objectives 1-2, the second manuscript addresses objective 3, and the final manuscript objective 4. The overarching goal of the proposal was to understand how both recently experienced and projected water temperatures might influence population-specific patterns of embryo incubation, timing of hatching and fry emergence, and survival of sockeye salmon embryos. Additionally, we sought to explore the potential for adaptation in a heritable threshold life history trait that shapes whether an individual migrates to the ocean...
Categories: Data; Types: Map Service, OGC WFS Layer, OGC WMS Layer, OGC WMS Service; Tags: Academics & scientific researchers, CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ASSESSMENT MODELS, CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ASSESSMENT MODELS, DATA REFORMATTING, DATA REFORMATTING, All tags...
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Climate change is expected to impact the thermal regimes of streams and otherfreshwater ecosystems (Schindler 2001, Malmqvist and Rundle 2002, Poff et al. 2002). Whileincreased air temperatures will have direct effects on water temperature, indirect effects due tochanges in precipitation patterns, groundwater characteristics, and flow regimes (Perkins et al.2010) may have much larger effects. We explored 1) how variation in hydrologicalcharacteristics of streams mediate their thermal regimes, 2) how geomorphic features ofwatersheds regulated stream water sources and, therefore, thermal characteristics, and 3) whetherpatterns of thermal variation among streams correlate with the life-history characteristics ofPacific...
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Southwest Alaska is one of the fastest warming regions on Earth and its aquatic resources are at distinct risk from changing climate. Previous work has demonstrated that a variety of physical and biological processes are sensitive to changing climate regimes in this region, including those that support wildlife and fisheries that are of substantial importance for subsistence and commercial activities. This collaborative project resulted in the compilation of a database of existing stream, river and lake temperatures that is unmatched anywhere else in Alaska in terms of its spatial and temporal coverage. Analysis of these data resulted in refinement of the monitoring plan developed to characterize thermal responses...
The cascade of uncertainty that underscores climate impact assessments of regional hydrology undermines their value for long-term water resources planning and management. This study presents a statistical framework that quantifies and propagates the uncertainties of hydrologic model response through projections of future streamflow under climate change. Different sources of hydrologic model uncertainty are accounted for using Bayesian modeling. The distribution of model residuals is formally characterized to quantify predictive skill, and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling is used to infer the posterior distributions of both hydrologic and error model parameters. Parameter and residual error uncertainties are integrated...
The objective of this project was to develop tools to assist managers in protecting and restoring streams for brook trout and other aquatic resources in the face of threats such as climate change and development. Summary of Phase 2 of the project (2014-2016):The goal of the second phase of this project was to improve natural resources management by providing effective, flexible, portable, and transparent modeling results and decision support tools to managers. The objectives included: 1) Expand existing tools to additional portions of LCC region a) Extend the stream temperature and stream flow models to the full geographic area of the North Atlantic LCC, plus the headwaters of the Atlantic-draining watersheds (e.g.,...
Categories: Data, Project; Tags: 2010, ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES, ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES, ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES, ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES, All tags...
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As Alaskans continue to feel the impacts of a changing climate, the need for resource managers to understand how these changes will alter aquatic systems and fisheries resources grows. Water temperature data collection has increased in recent years to begin to fill our gaps in knowledge about current thermal profiles. Many entities are collecting temperature data for a variety of purposes to meet project or agency specific goals. AKOATS, the Alaska Online Aquatic Temperature Site, is a comprehensive statewide inventory of current (n=413) and historic (n=398) continuous monitoring locations for stream and lake temperature using a common set of attributes. Data were gathered from fish biologists, hydrologists, water...
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This plan establishes a framework for voluntary, network-based water temperature monitoring of salmon habitat in the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska. The goals are to coordinate acquisition and availability of water temperature data that meets salmon management needs of cooperating organizations, meets statewide minimum data collection standards, and is publicly-accessible. The focus on monitoring water temperature of salmon habitat reflects recognition of its prominent influence on salmon at all life cycle stages; the importance of salmon to the economy and ecosystem of the archipelago; and the need to provide reliable time-series data to support development of proactive approaches to management of salmon in response...
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The Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment utilized expert opinion that was gathered through the Standardized Index of Vulnerability and Value (SIVVA) tool, which is an Excel-based vulnerability and prioritization tool that enables assessors to provide input in a relatively short time and allows for relatively seamless compilation of results.The vulnerability of each ecosystem and associated species was conducted by subregion, excluding those subregions where the species did not occur in significant numbers. Assessors were asked to evaluate species based on the habitats they use in a particular subregion. Because vulnerability can vary with life-stage for many species, assessors were asked to consider the most vulnerable...
Categories: Data; Types: Map Service, OGC WFS Layer, OGC WMS Layer, OGC WMS Service; Tags: ANIMALS/INVERTEBRATES, ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES, ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES, ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES, ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES, All tags...
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An important unresolved question is how populations of coldwater-dependent fishes will respond to rapidly warming water temperatures. For example, the culturally and economically important group, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), experience site-specific thermal regimes during early development that could be disrupted by warming. To test for thermal local adaptation and heritable phenotypic plasticity in Pacific salmon embryos, we measured the developmental rate, survival, and body size at hatching in two populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that overlap in timing of spawning but incubate in contrasting natural thermal regimes. Using a split half-sibling design, we exposed embryos of 10 families...
Categories: Data, Publication; Types: Citation, Map Service, OGC WFS Layer, OGC WMS Layer, OGC WMS Service; Tags: Academics & scientific researchers, CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ASSESSMENT MODELS, CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ASSESSMENT MODELS, DATA REFORMATTING, DATA REFORMATTING, All tags...
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Spawning migrations of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) to coastal watersheds provide a rich resource subsidy to freshwater consumers. However, variation in thermal regimes and spawning activity across the landscape constrain the ability of poikilothermic consumers to assimilate eggs and carcasses. We investigated how sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) spawning density and stream temperature affect the growth, body condition, and fatty acid composition of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), a known egg predator, in seven tributaries of the Wood River in Southwest Alaska. We compared mean body size of juvenile coho salmon in late summer among 3–7 years per stream and found that the largest mean size occurred...


map background search result map search result map Temperature, phenology, and embryo survival in western Alaska sockeye salmon population: the potential for adaptation to a warming world? Webinar:  Moored All-Season Vertical Temperature Arrays in Lakes on Kodiak, Togiak, and Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuges Watershed Control of Hydrologic Sources and Thermal Conditions in SW Alaska Streams: A Framework for Forecasting Effects of Changing Climate Moored All-Season Vertical Temperature Arrays in Lakes on Kodiak, Togiak, and Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuges Watershed geomorphology and snowmelt control stream thermal sensitivity to air temperature. Rapid and highly variable warming of lake surface waters around the globe Watershed geomorphology and snowmelt control stream thermal sensitivity to air temperature Thermal adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in a warming world: Insights from common garden experiments on Alaskan sockeye salmon Thermal constraints on stream consumer responses to a marine resource subsidy Webinar: Effects of winter climate and watershed features on summer stream temperatures in Bristol Bay, Alaska Final Report Water Temperature Regimes in the Togiak NWR and Wood-Tikchik State Park Final Report: Temperature, phenology, and embryo survival in Western Alaska sockeye salmon populations: the potential for adaptation to a warming worl Where we are and where we need to be to understand regional water temperature trends: establishing minimum data collection standards for stream temper Riding the crimson tide: mobile terrestrial consumers track phenological variation in spawning of an anadromous fish Subsidies of Aquatic Resources in Terrestrial Ecosystems A global database of lake surface temperatures collected by in situ and satellite methods from 1985–2009 Strategic Plan for Voluntary, Network-based Water Temperature Monitoring of Salmon Habitat in the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska Gulf of Mexico Habitat and Species Vulnerability Temperature, phenology, and embryo survival in western Alaska sockeye salmon population: the potential for adaptation to a warming world? Thermal adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in a warming world: Insights from common garden experiments on Alaskan sockeye salmon Final Report: Temperature, phenology, and embryo survival in Western Alaska sockeye salmon populations: the potential for adaptation to a warming worl Watershed Control of Hydrologic Sources and Thermal Conditions in SW Alaska Streams: A Framework for Forecasting Effects of Changing Climate Watershed geomorphology and snowmelt control stream thermal sensitivity to air temperature. Riding the crimson tide: mobile terrestrial consumers track phenological variation in spawning of an anadromous fish Rapid and highly variable warming of lake surface waters around the globe Watershed geomorphology and snowmelt control stream thermal sensitivity to air temperature Thermal constraints on stream consumer responses to a marine resource subsidy Webinar: Effects of winter climate and watershed features on summer stream temperatures in Bristol Bay, Alaska Final Report Water Temperature Regimes in the Togiak NWR and Wood-Tikchik State Park Subsidies of Aquatic Resources in Terrestrial Ecosystems A global database of lake surface temperatures collected by in situ and satellite methods from 1985–2009 Strategic Plan for Voluntary, Network-based Water Temperature Monitoring of Salmon Habitat in the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska Webinar:  Moored All-Season Vertical Temperature Arrays in Lakes on Kodiak, Togiak, and Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuges Moored All-Season Vertical Temperature Arrays in Lakes on Kodiak, Togiak, and Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuges Gulf of Mexico Habitat and Species Vulnerability Where we are and where we need to be to understand regional water temperature trends: establishing minimum data collection standards for stream temper