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A new species of poplar is recognized based on abundant specimens from the early Middle Eocene Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation in eastern Utah and western Colorado and compared with two other contemporary species. A rare twig bearing both leaves and fruits serves as a Rosetta stone, linking the vegetative and reproductive structures that formerly were only known from dispersed organs. Fruit and foliage characters distinguish Populus tidwellii sp. n. from Populus cinnamomoides (Lesquereux) MacGinitie (typified on specimens from Green River Station, WY), to which the isolated leaves had formerly been attributed. In addition, new data from fruits and foliage confirm that there were two distinct...
Beavers (Castor canadensis Kuhl) can influence the competitive dynamics of plant species through selective foraging, collection of materials for dam creation, and alteration of hydrologic conditions. In the Grand Canyon National Park, the native Salix gooddingii C.R.Ball (Goodding?s willow) and Salix exigua Nutt. (coyote willow) are a staple food of beavers. Because Salix competes with the invasive Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb., land mangers are concerned that beavers may cause an increase in Tamarix through selective foraging of Salix. A spatial analysis was conducted to assess whether the presence of beavers correlates with the relative abundance of Salix and Tamarix. These methods were designed to detect a system-wide...
Environmental flows have become important restoration tools on regulated rivers. However, environmental flows are often constrained by other demands within the river system and thus typically are comprised of smaller water volumes than the natural flows they are meant to replace, which can limit their functional efficacy. We review environmental flow programs aimed at restoring riparian vegetation on four arid zone rivers: the Tarim River in China; the Bill Williams River in Arizona, U.S.; the delta of the Colorado River in Mexico; and the Murrumbidgee River in southern Australia. Our goal is to determine what worked and what did not work to accomplish restoration goals. The lower Tarim River in China formerly formed...
Tamarix spp. removal has been proposed to salvage water and allow native vegetation to recolonize western U.S. riparian corridors. We conducted wide-area studies on the Lower Colorado River to answer some of the scientific questions about Tamarix water use and the consequences of removal, combining ground surveys with remote sensing methods. Tamarix stands had moderate rates of evapotranspiration (ET), based on remote sensing estimates, averaging 1.1 m/yr, similar to rates determined for other locations on the river and other rivers. Leaf area index values were also moderate, and stands were relatively open, with areas of bare soil interspersed within stands. At three Tamarix sites in the Cibola National Wildlife...
This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA strategic goals centered on agricultural production. These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation programs....
This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA strategic goals centered on agricultural production. These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation programs....
1. Riparian vegetation in dry regions is influenced by low-flow and high-flow components of the surface and groundwater flow regimes. The duration of no-flow periods in the surface stream controls vegetation structure along the low-flow channel, while depth, magnitude and rate of groundwater decline influence phreatophytic vegetation in the floodplain. Flood flows influence vegetation along channels and floodplains by increasing water availability and by creating ecosystem disturbance. 2. On reference rivers in Arizona's Sonoran Desert region, the combination of perennial stream flows, shallow groundwater in the riparian (stream) aquifer, and frequent flooding results in high plant species diversity and landscape...
Drastic alterations to river hydrology, land use change, and the spread of the nonnative shrub, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), have led to the degradation of riparian habitat in the Colorado River Delta in Mexico. Delivery of environmental flows to promote native cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) recruitment in human-impacted riparian systems can be unsuccessful due to flow-magnitude constraints and altered abiotic–biotic feedbacks. In 2014, an experimental pulse flow of water was delivered to the Colorado River in Mexico as part of the U.S.-Mexico binational agreement, Minute 319. We conducted a field experiment to assess the effects of vegetation removal, seed augmentation, and environmental flows, separately...
Willow communities dominate mid-elevation riparian areas throughout the Rocky Mountains of North America. However, many willow stands are rapidly declining in aerial cover and individual plants in stature. A poor understanding of the processes that control willow establishment hinders identifying the causes of this decline. We analysed the processes that have facilitated or limited willow establishment over the last half of the 20th century on two large floodplains in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado by addressing two questions: (1) How does hydrologic regime control willow establishment on different fluvial landforms? (2) How might climate-driven variations in hydrologic regime affect future willow establishment?...


map background search result map search result map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_ne_14_1_20150729_20151103 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_nw_14_1_20150729_20151103 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map USGS 1:24000-scale Quadrangle for Salix, IA 1964 USGS 1:24000-scale Quadrangle for Salix, IA 1964 FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_ne_14_1_20150729_20151103 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_4209646_nw_14_1_20150729_20151103 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map USGS 1:24000-scale Quadrangle for Salix, IA 1964 USGS 1:24000-scale Quadrangle for Salix, IA 1964