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Climate change is poised to alter the distributional limits, center, and size of many species. Traits may influence different aspects of range shifts, with trophic generality facilitating shifts at the leading edge, and greater thermal tolerance limiting contractions at the trailing edge. The generality of relationships between traits and range shifts remains ambiguous however, especially for imperiled fishes residing in xeric riverscapes. Our objectives were to quantify contemporary fish distributions in the Lower Colorado River Basin, forecast climate change by 2085 using two general circulation models, and quantify shifts in the limits, center, and size of fish elevational ranges according to fish traits. We...
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Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula, Polyodontidae) are large, mostly-riverine fish that once were abundant in medium- to large-sized river systems throughout much of the central United States. Concern for paddlefish populations has grown from a regional fisheries issue to one of national importance for the United States. In 1989, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) was petitioned to list paddlefish as a federally threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. The petition was not granted, primarily because of a lack of empirical data on paddlefish population size, age structure, growth, or harvest rates across the present 22-state range. Nonetheless, concern for paddlefish populations prompted the USFWS...
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The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus) is both an invasive non-native species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and an imperiled species in much of its native range in North America and Europe. To compare and contrast how understanding of population ecology is useful for control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in Europe, we review current understanding of the population ecology of the sea lamprey in its native and introduced range. Some attributes of sea lamprey population ecology are particularly useful for both control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in the native range. First, traps within fish ladders are beneficial for removing sea lampreys in Great...
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This issue of Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries contains six papers addressing several critical aspects of hybridization in fishes and aquatic organisms. Hybridization is a phenomenon long recognized in fishes (Hubbs, 1920, 1955; Schwarz, 1981), as well as in other plant and vertebrate taxa, despite some rather dogmatic proclamations to the contrary, e.g., comments made by David Starr Jordan at the beginning of the 20th century that the species “line” is rarely crossed in fishes (Clark Hubbs, personal communication). Since that time, interspecific genetic introgression has been well documented in many fish genera and species: Barbus (Berrebi and CattaneoBerrebi, 1993); Cyprinodon (Echelle and Connor, 1989; Dowling...
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Non-native fishes have been known from freshwater ecosystems of Florida since the 1950s, and dozens of species have established self-sustaining populations. Nonetheless, no synthesis of data collected on those species in Florida has been published until now. We searched the literature for peer-reviewed publications reporting original data for 42 species of non-native fishes in Florida that are currently established, were established in the past, or are sustained by human intervention. Since the 1950s, the number of non-native fish species increased steadily at a rate of roughly six new species per decade. Studies documented (in decreasing abundance): geographic location/range expansion, life- and natural-history...
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Although climate change is an important factor affecting inland fishes globally, a comprehensive review of how climate change has impacted and will continue to impact inland fishes worldwide does not currently exist. We conducted an extensive, systematic primary literature review to identify English-language, peer-reviewed journal publications with projected and documented examples of climate change impacts on inland fishes globally. Since the mid-1980s, scientists have projected the effects of climate change on inland fishes, and more recently, documentation of climate change impacts on inland fishes has increased. Of the thousands of title and abstracts reviewed, we selected 624 publications for a full text review:...
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Thiamine deficiency complex (TDC) is a disorder resulting from the inability to acquire or retain thiamine (vitamin B1) and has been documented in organisms in aquatic ecosystems ranging from the Baltic Sea to the Laurentian Great Lakes. The biological mechanisms leading to TDC emergence may vary among systems, but in fishes, one common outcome is high mortality among early life stages. Here, we review the causes and consequences of thiamine deficiency in fishes and identify potential solutions. First, we examine the biochemical and physiological roles of thiamine in vertebrates and find that thiamine deficiency consistently results in impaired neurological function across diverse taxa. Next, we review natural producers...
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The relationship between autotrophic activity and freshwater fish populations is an important consideration for ecologists describing trophic structure in aquatic communities, fisheries managers tasked with increasing sustainable fisheries development, and fish farmers seeking to maximize production. Previous studies of the empirical relationships of autotrophic activity and freshwater fish yield have found positive relationships but were limited by small sample sizes, small geographic scopes, and the inability to compare patterns among many types of measurement techniques. Individual studies and reviews have also lacked consistent consideration of regional climate factors which may inform relationships between...
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Global climate change is predicted to increase air and stream temperatures and alter thermal habitat suitability for growth and survival of coldwater fishes, including brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In a changing climate, accurate stream temperature modeling is increasingly important for sustainable salmonid management throughout the world. However, finite resource availability (e.g. funding, personnel) drives a tradeoff between thermal model accuracy and efficiency (i.e. cost-effective applicability at management-relevant spatial extents). Using different projected climate change scenarios, we compared the accuracy and efficiency of stream-specific...
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Artificial propagation of aquatic organisms is increasing globally and currently accounts for approximately 32% of total world fishery production (Vannuccini, 2004). Between 1970 and 2000, aquaculture production of salmonids has grown from less than 200,000 metric tons per year to over 1.5 million metric tons (Tacon, 2003). In 1995, the number of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) far exceeded the carrying capacity of salmon in the wild but over 94% of all adult Atlantic salmon were in aquaculture environments (Gross, 1998).Since the 1970’s, concerns have arisen about interactions of hatchery and wild produced salmonids in native habitats. In response, research has addressed concerns about domestication and genetic impacts...
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While biologists have been aware of the existence of native Mexican trouts for over a century, they have received little study. The few early studies that did much more than mention their existence began in the 1930s and continued into the early 1960s, focusing primarily on distributional surveys and taxonomic analyses. Starting in the 1980s the Baja California rainbow trout became the subject of more detailed studies, but very little remains known of mainland trouts of the Sierra Madre Occidental. We review earlier studies and report on our own collections and observations made between 1975 and 2000. We present newly discovered historical evidence that leads us to conclude that a "lost" cutthroat trout, a lineage...
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Despite increasing concern that climate change may negatively impact trout—a globally distributed group of fish with major economic, ecological, and cultural value—a synthetic assessment of empirical data quantifying relationships between climatic variation and trout ecology does not exist. We conducted a systematic review to describe how temporal variation in temperature and streamflow influences trout ecology in freshwater ecosystems. Few studies (n = 42) have quantified relationships between temperature or streamflow and trout demography, growth, or phenology, and nearly all estimates (96 %) were for Salvelinus fontinalis and Salmo trutta. Only seven studies used temporal data to quantify climate-driven changes...
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Review of: E.J. Branson (ed): Fish Welfare Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2008, xvi + 300 pp, Hardback, ISBN-13:978-1-4051-4629-6.
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Conservation efforts, environmental planning, and management must account for ongoing ecosystem alteration due to a changing climate, introduced species, and shifting land use. This type of management can be facilitated by an understanding of the thermal ecology of aquatic organisms. However, information on thermal ecology for entire taxonomic groups is rarely compiled or summarized, and reviews of the science can facilitate its advancement. Crayfish are one of the most globally threatened taxa, and ongoing declines and extirpation could have serious consequences on aquatic ecosystem function due to their significant biomass and ecosystem roles. Our goal was to review the literature on thermal ecology for freshwater...
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Despite the importance of hydrologic regimes to the phenology, demography, and abundance of fishes such as salmonids, there have been surprisingly few syntheses that holistically assess regional, species-specific trends in hydrologic regimes within a framework of climate change. Here, we consider hydrologic regimes within the Greater Yellowstone Area in the Rocky Mountains of western North America to evaluate changes in hydrologic metrics anticipated to affect salmonids, a group of fishes with high regional ecological and socioeconomic value. Our analyses assessed trends across different sites and time periods (1930–, 1950–, and 1970–2015) as means to evaluate spatial and temporal shifts. Consistent patterns emerged...
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Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world's oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since a number of studies have recently examined pink salmon interactions with other salmon, we reviewed them in an effort to describe patterns of interaction over broad regions of the ocean. Research consistently indicated that pink salmon significantly altered prey abundance of other salmon species...
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Fisheries stock assessments are essential for science-based fisheries management. Inland fisheries pose challenges, but also provide opportunities for biological assessments that differ from those encountered in large marine fisheries for which many of our assessment methods have been developed. These include the number and diversity of fisheries, high levels of ecological and environmental variation, and relative lack of institutional capacity for assessment. In addition, anthropogenic impacts on habitats, widespread presence of non-native species and the frequent use of enhancement and restoration measures such as stocking affect stock dynamics. This paper outlines various stock assessment and data collection...
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Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including human influences, characteristics of the invader, and biotic interactions. We apply this framework by contrasting hypotheses and available evidence to explain variability in invasion success for 12 salmonids introduced to Chile. The success of Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta seems to be influenced by a context-specific combination of their phenotypic...
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Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are anadromous and iteroparous, but repeat-spawning rates are generally low. Like other anadromous salmonids, steelhead trout fast during freshwater spawning migrations, but little is known about the changes that occur in vital organs and tissues. We hypothesized that fish capable of repeat-spawning would not undergo the same irreversible degeneration and cellular necrosis documented in semelparous salmon. Using Snake River steelhead trout as a model we used histological analysis to assess the cellular architecture in the pyloric stomach, ovary, liver, and spleen in sexually mature and kelt steelhead trout. We observed 38 % of emigrating kelts with food or fecal material in...


map background search result map search result map Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses