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MODFLOW is a popular open-source groundwater flow model distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey. For 30 years, the MODFLOW program has been widely used by academic researchers, private consultants, and government scientists to accurately, reliably, and efficiently simulate groundwater flow. With time, growing interest in surface and groundwater interactions, local refinement with nested and unstructured grids, karst groundwater flow, solute transport, and saltwater intrusion, has led to the development of numerous MODFLOW versions. Although these MODFLOW versions are often based on the core version (presently MODFLOW-2005), there are often incompatibilities that restrict their use with one another. In many cases,...
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SOILWAT2 is a daily time step, multiple soil layer, process-based simulation model of ecosystem water balance. Inputs to SOILWAT2 include local meteorology (daily temperature and precipitation, mean monthly relative humidity, wind speed and cloud cover), vegetation (monthly total biomass, % live biomass, surface litter, belowground rooting profile) and soil texture (gravel, sand, silt, and clay) to simulate daily ecosystem water balance. SOILWAT2 simulates precipitation interception by vegetation and litter, evaporation of intercepted water, snowmelt, sublimation and wind redistribution of snow, moisture infiltration, saturated and unsaturated percolation and hydraulic redistribution for each soil layer, bare-soil...
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"Precipitation thresholds are used in many areas to provide early warning of precipitation-induced landslides and debris flows, and the software distribution THRESH is designed for automated tracking of precipitation, including precipitation forecasts, relative to thresholds for landslide occurrence. This software is also useful for analyzing multiyear precipitation records to compare timing of threshold exceedance with dates and times of historical landslides. This distribution includes the main program THRESH for comparing precipitation to several kinds of thresholds, two utility programs, and a small collection of Python and shell scripts to aid the automated collection and formatting of input data and the graphing...
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PHREEQC Version 3 is a computer program written in the C++ programming language that is designed to perform a wide variety of aqueous geochemical calculations. PHREEQC implements several types of aqueous models including two ion-association aqueous models.
Summary: The SSEBop model is based on the Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) approach (Senay et al., 2007, 2011) with a unique parameterization for operational applications. It combines ET fractions, generated from Landsat Collection 1 Provisional Surface Temperature, with reference ET using a thermal index approach based on the principle of satellite psychrometry (Senay, 2018). The unique feature of the SSEBop parameterization is that it uses pre-defined and seasonally dynamic boundary conditions that are specific to each pixel for the “hot/dry” and “cold/wet” reference points. The Landsat Provisional Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa) science product is generated by calculating the latent heat flux based on...
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"Worldwide climate modeling centers participating in the 5th Climate Model Intercomparison Program (CMIP5) are providing climate information for the ongoing Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The output from the CMIP5 models is typically provided on grids of ~1 to 3 degrees in latitude and longitude (roughly 80 to 230 km at 45° latitude). To derive higher resolution data for regional climate change assessments, NASA applied a statistical technique to downscale maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation from 33 of the CMIP5 climate models to a very fine, 800-m grid over the contiguous United States (CONUS). The full NEX-DCP30 dataset covers the historical...
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"The COAWST modeling system joins an ocean model, an atmosphere model, a wave model, and a sediment transport model for studies of coastal change. COAWST is an open-source tool that combines many sophisticated systems that each provide relative earth-system components necessary to investigate the dynamics of coastal storm impacts. Specifically, the COAWST Modeling System includes an ocean component—Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS); atmosphere component—Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF), hydrology component- WRF_Hydro; wave components—Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN), WAVEWATCHIII, and InWave; a sediment component—the USGS Community Sediment Models; and a sea ice model. We began with a coupled modeling...
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The Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Model (WEBMOD) uses the framework of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Modular Modeling System to simulate fluxes of water and solutes through watersheds. WEBMOD divides watersheds into model response units (MRU) where fluxes and reactions are simulated for the following eight hillslope reservoir types: canopy; snowpack; ponding on impervious surfaces; O-horizon; two reservoirs in the unsaturated zone, which represent preferential flow and matrix flow; and two reservoirs in the saturated zone, which also represent preferential flow and matrix flow. MRUs discharge to one or more stream reservoirs that flow to the outlet of the watershed. Hydrologic fluxes in the watershed are...
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"VS2DI is a graphical software package for simulating flow and transport in variably saturated porous media. This software package consists of three components: VS2DTI, for simulating fluid flow and solute transport, VS2DHI, for simulating fluid flow and energy (heat) transport, a standalone postprocessor, for viewing results saved from previous simulation runs. Both VS2DTI and VS2DHI combine a graphical user interface with a numerical model to create an integrated, window-based modeling environment. Users can easily specify or change the model domain,hydraulic and transport properties, initial and boundary conditions, grid spacing, and other model parameters. Simulation results can be displayed as contours of pressure...
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Slab2 is a new model describing the 3D geometries of all seismically active subduction zones worldwide. Slab2 models slabs from the near-surface (oceanic trenches for most slabs) to their deepest expressions in the upper mantle. In all, Slab2 describes the detailed geometry of more than 24 million square kilometers of subducted slabs. There were a variety of enhancements made to Slab2 that set it apart from Slab1.0 and other global subduction zone models.
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See 'Introduction' and 'A brief description of the PTCOUNT program': https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr012 Model Name (Name of the model, including acronyms): PTCOUNT - Program to Calculate the Areal Distribution of Mapped Data Points Using Count-Circle Methodology Model Version (Version of the model, (i.e., 2.0)): Abstract (Description or summary of the model, including its purpose or goals and the type or formalism of the model (e.g., system dynamic, agent based model, machine learning), preferably accompanied by relevant keywords): See 'Introduction' and 'A brief description of the PTCOUNT program': https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr012 Originator(s) (Name(s) of the model developer(s)/author(s)): Contact Name(s) and Email...
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NSHMP combines state-of-the-art work in earthquake source seismology, ground motion seismology, paleoseismology, geology, geodesy, and engineering. This information is integrated into the national seismic hazard models for the U.S. and its territories, as well as associated products such as probabilistic seismic hazard maps, hazard curves at more than 600,00 sites, uncertainty analyses for selected cities, and loss estimation. The national seismic hazard maps are the basis for seismic provisions in building codes, risk models used in insurance rate structures, the financial sector, FEMA's Hazus software, and many other government agencies. Model Name (Name of the model, including acronyms): National Seismic Hazard...
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"The FOREcasting SCEnarios of Land-use Change (FORE-SCE) modeling framework provides spatially explicit projections of future land-use and land-cover change. FORE-SCE uses a modular approach to handle large-scale (national to global) and small-scale (local) drivers of change. The model has been used to model both historical landscapes and project future scenarios of landscape change. FORE-SCE can be applied to a variety of geographies and scales, with past applications including national-scale application for the conterminous United States, or newer parcel-based applications for the Great Plains and elsewhere that portray scenarios of landscape change at high spatial and thematic resolution. USGS has a long history...
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SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) models estimate the amount of a contaminant transported from inland watersheds to larger water bodies by linking monitoring data with information on watershed characteristics and contaminant sources. Interactive, online SPARROW mapping tools allow for easy access to explore relations between human activities, natural processes, and contaminant transport.
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A process‐based wave‐resolving hydrodynamic model (XBeach Non‐Hydrostatic, “XBNH”) was used to create a large synthetic database for use in a “Bayesian Estimator for Wave Attack in Reef Environments” (BEWARE), relating incident hydrodynamics and coral reef geomorphology to coastal flooding hazards on reef‐lined coasts. Building on previous work, BEWARE improves system understanding of reef hydrodynamics by examining the intrinsic reef and extrinsic forcing factors controlling runup and flooding on reef‐lined coasts. The Bayesian estimator has high predictive skill for the XBNH model outputs that are flooding indicators, and was validated for a number of available field cases. Full Image Caption: Layout of the “Bayesian...
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Ash3d is a three-dimensional Eulerian atmospheric model for tephra transport, dispersal, and deposition, written by the authors to study and forecast hazards of volcanic ash clouds and tephra fall. In this report, we explain how to set up simulations using both a web interface and an ASCII input file, and how to view and interpret model output. Model Name (Name of the model, including acronyms): Ash3d Model Version (Version of the model, (i.e., 2.0)): Abstract (Description or summary of the model, including its purpose or goals and the type or formalism of the model (e.g., system dynamic, agent based model, machine learning), preferably accompanied by relevant keywords): Ash3d is a three-dimensional Eulerian atmospheric...
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SLAMMER is a Java program that facilitates performing a variety of sliding-block analyses to evaluate seismic slope performance. Functionalities include both rigorous and simplified analyses of rigid sliding blocks (i.e. Newmark analysis) and flexible sliding blocks (i.e. decoupled and fully coupled approaches). More than 2,100 recorded ground motions from the PEER Ground Motion Database are included with the program, and users can import their own ground-motion records for analysis. Model Name (Name of the model, including acronyms): SLAMMER - Seismic LAndslide Movement Modeled using Earthquake Records Model Version (Version of the model, (i.e., 2.0)): 1.1 Abstract (Description or summary of the model, including...
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BIOMOC is a two-dimensional model that can simulate the transport and biotransformation of multiple reacting solutes. The program is general and flexible, allowing for any combination of biodegradation processes. A number of expressions for biological transformation rates have been included as options in the code. These include single, multiple, and minimum Monod kinetics and competitive, noncompetitive, and Haldane inhibition.
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The two-dimensional computer models, TopoDrive and ParticleFlow, are designed to simulate two ground-water processes: topography-driven flow and transport of fluid particles. In both cases, the flow is under steady state. The purpose of the two models is to provide interactive simulation and visualization capabilities that enable the user to easily and quickly explore model behavior, and thereby better understand ground-water flow processes. In this regard, TopoDrive and ParticleFlow are not intended to be comprehensive modeling tools, but are designed for modeling at the exploratory or conceptual level, for visual demonstration, and for educational purposes.
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"The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is the primary source for critical quantitative data to evaluate the status of continental bird species, keeping common birds common and helping fuel a $75 billion wildlife watching industry. Each year thousands of citizen scientists skilled in avian identification collect data on BBS routes throughout North America allowing us to better understand bird population changes and manage them. The USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Environment and Climate Change Canada, and the Mexican National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity jointly coordinate the program, which provides reliable population data and trend analyses on more than 500 bird species."...