Skip to main content
Advanced Search

Filters: Tags: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (X)

29 results (165ms)   

View Results as: JSON ATOM CSV
The pollen of three Ephedra taxa, Ephedra torreyana, E. trifurca and E. funerealeft right double arrowE. torreyana, showed a marked pollen dimorphism when examined using scanning electron microscopy. Typical pollen grains in all of these taxa have straight ridges, but the variant forms exhibit a highly folded ectexine. In addition, previously used characters such as the presence or absence of bifurcating valley structure do not appear to be uniform, even within a single microsporangium, suggesting that their value to taxonomic study should be reassessed. Published in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, volume 124, issue 3-4, on pages 325 - 334, in 2003.
thumbnail
Analysis of 170 pollen assemblages from surface samples in eight vegetation types in the Florida Everglades indicates that these wetland sub-environments are distinguishable from the pollen record and that they are useful proxies for hydrologic and edaphic parameters. Vegetation types sampled include sawgrass marshes, cattail marshes, sloughs with floating aquatics, wet prairies, brackish marshes, tree islands, cypress swamps, and mangrove forests. The distribution of these vegetation types is controlled by specific environmental parameters, such as hydrologic regime, nutrient availability, disturbance level, substrate type, and salinity; ecotones between vegetation types may be sharp. Using R-mode cluster analysis...
thumbnail
This paper uses angiosperm pollen taxon turnover (first and last appearance) and diversity events as metrics to describe the Paleocene floral history of the eastern Gulf Coast; data are from 64 samples and 67 angiosperm pollen taxa. Angiosperm pollen diversity was very low at the beginning of the Paleocene, rose slowly and then somewhat more rapidly to a maximum for the epoch in the middle of the late Paleoceneas a result of the maximum in rate of first appearances during the late early Paleocene and earliest late Paleocene. Diversity then dropped very rapidly at or near the end of the epoch as the rate of last appearances reached its maximum, resulting in the Terminal Paleocene Extinction Event. The latest Paleocene...
thumbnail
Criteria are provided for identification of certain Pennsylvanian-age plant megafossils directly from coal based on their characteristic anatomical structures as documented from etched polished coal surfaces in comparison with other modes of preservation. Lepidophloios hallii periderm, Diaphorodendron periderm, an Alethopteris pinnule, and a Cordaites leaf were studied in material in continuity with adjacent permineralized peat (carbonate coal-ballas). Calamites wood in attachment to a pitch cast and a Psaronius stem in coal in attachment to a fusinitized Psaronius inner root mantle were studied. Sigillaria was identified in coal by comparison to its structure in permineralized peat. Other plant tissues with characteristic...
thumbnail
In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed...
thumbnail
Three informal palynological assemblage zones can be distinguished in samples from Chinle Formation outcrops in Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. The oldest zone (zone I) is in the Temple Mountain Member in southeastern Utah; the middle zone (zone II) is in the Shinarump, Moss Back, Monitor Butte and (lower part of the) Petrified Forest Members (Utah, Arizona and New Mexico); the youngest zone (zone III) is in the upper Petrified Forest Member and silstone member in Arizona and Utah and the silstone member in northcentral New Mexico. Present palynological evidence suggests that Chinle deposition on the Colorado Plateau began locally in late Carnian time and continued at least into the early part of Norian time of the...
thumbnail
Paleontological evidence from the Upper Triassic Chatham Group in the three subbasins of the Deep River basin (North Carolina, USA) supports a significant revision of the ages assigned to most of this non-marine continental sedimentary sequence. This study confirms an early(?) or mid-Carnian age in the Sanford subbasin for the base of the Pekin Formation, the lowest unit of the Chatham Group. However, diagnostic late Carnian palynomorphs have been recovered from coals in the lower part of the Cumnock Formation in the Sanford subbasin, and from a sample of the Cumnock Formation equivalent in the Wadesboro subbasin. Plant megafossils and fossil verebrates from rocks in the Sanford subbasin also support a late Carnian...
thumbnail
Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus,...
Pollen ratios and linear discriminant analysis were used to detect fine-scale vegetation patterns in the subalpine zone of the central Rocky Mountains, USA. The vegetation of this zone is a mosaic of conifer forests and treeless parks dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and grasses. Previous work with pollen surface samples in the region has correlated modern pollen rain to broad-scale vegetation zones (e.g. steppe, montane forest, subalpine forest, and tundra), but little effort has been made to detect fine-scale (hundreds to thousands of meters) patterns within these vegetation zones. Previous theoretical studies suggest that vegetation patterns on the scale of hundreds of meters should be recorded in the...
thumbnail
The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.
thumbnail
The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic...
thumbnail
Analysis of the sediment of Pecks Lake, Yavapai County, Arizona, has permitted the first reported palynological evidence for the historic expansion of juniper and desert shrubs in the American Southwest. The palynological evidence is supported by the comparison of modern and historical photographs, which shows the regional expansion of pinyon-juniper woodland, and the local increase of mesquite and creosote bush. A gradual increase in juniper pollen percentages began over 2000 years ago, but the rate of increase abruptly accelerated after the historic introduction of grazing animals. In contrast, juniper percentages did not increase during a prehistoric interval of intense disturbance by humans, about A.D. 1200,...
thumbnail
Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst....
thumbnail
A major floral change occurs in the Upper Pennsylvanian strata in the Midcontinent, Illinois basin, and in the northern Appalachian basin of eastern United States. Lycospora spp. (derived from arborescent lycopsids) became extinct along with some other palynomorph taxa. This investigation is concerned with the importance of this major floral change. Samples were studied from western Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, and West Virginia (from a previous study) cover the stratigraphic interval from the Upper Freeport coal bed, uppermost part of the Allegheny Formation, to the Mahoning, Mason, Brush Creek, Wilgus, and Anderson coal beds in the lower part of the Conemaugh Formation. The floral change occurs either at or below...
thumbnail
Phytogeographic reconstructions have been published for most Paleozoic series since the Pr??i??doli??, but there have been few attempts to synthesize this data into a comprehensive review of the characteristics and causes of the changing phytogeographic patterns for the whole Paleozoic history of the vascular flora. Existing floristic analyses have been compiled in this manuscript and the resulting data are used to reconstruct the evolution of floristic provinces since the Silurian. The earliest plant fossil records indicate that provinciality was characteristic of terrestrial vascular plant distributions right from the beginning of terrestrial colonization by vascular plants. This interpretation differs markedly...
thumbnail
The problem of determining affinity among glossopterid gymnosperms is beset by deficiencies in preservation, natural dissociation of parts, and scarcity of features assuredly critical for morphologic comprarison. The glossopterids probably are not a very heterogeneous group of plants, but this is difficult to prove. The Gondwana glacial "hiatus" has resulted in the omission of a critical chapter glossopterid evolution. As a consequence, morphologic features and phyletic probabilities must be evaluated on a much more hypothetical basis than would otherwise be justified. Confusion has arisen from the lack of morphologic terms that permit clear discussion of a newly evolved type of reproductive structure in glossopterids....
thumbnail
Palynological assemblages from two outcrops of the upper part of the Memorial Formation, the Lost Branch Formation, and the overlying Hepler unit in Kansas were examined to discover which stratigraphic interval marks the change from the lycopod-dominated coal swamp floras of Middle Pennsylvanian (Westphalian D) age to the fern-dominated coal swamp floras of Late Pennsylvanian (Stephanian) age. The Lost Branch Formation underlies the Pleasanton Group, whose base is recognized as the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian boundary in the Midcontinent. The outcrops include the youngest Middle Pennsylvanian coal (Dawson), just below the Lost Branch Formation, and the oldest Upper Pennsylvanian coal ('Hepler') within the Pleasanton...
An extinct genus of the Polemoniaceae is described from one complete fossil plant preserved in shale of the Eocene Green River Formation, Utah. Combined vegetative and reproductive characters including the taproot, basal and cauline pinnatifid leaves, primary peduncular leaves, secondary peduncular bracts, pedicel bracts, fruits in groups of three, and persistent calyx, support placement of this plant close to the extant genus Gilia. Gilisenium hueberi gen. et sp. nov. represents a rare record of an herbaceous plant, and the oldest megafossil for the family Polemoniaceae. Published in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, volume 104, issue 1, on pages 39 - 49, in 1998.
thumbnail
Samples of uppermost Ordovician and Silurian strata from two cores from north-eastern and western Illinois were processed for chitinozoans. Due to apparent sea-floor oxidation or palaeoenvironmental constraints, very few samples yielded specimens, but those that did allow tentative correlation with established biostratigraphical zonations for the Chitinozoa. Samples from the Wilhelmi Formation of core DH76-21 in north-eastern Illinois yielded Spinachitina fragilis, a typically earliest Silurian taxon. A sample from the Maquoketa Group strata of core Principia #4, western Illinois, yielded a monospecific assemblage of Conochitina elegans, which is suggestive of a late Ordovician age. Higher in this core, a sample...
The purported ash samara, Fraxinus flexifolia (Lesquereux) Brown (1940) from the middle Eocene Green River Formation, is shown to be the same as small inequilateral legume leaflets identified as Mimosites coloradensis Knowlton. Because the name Mimosites Bowerbank is restricted to legume pods with mimosoid affinities, the new combination Parvileguminophyllum coloradensis (Knowlton) Call and Dilcher is proposed for the previously supposed samara, here recognized as a leaflet, and for leaflets currently placed in M. coloradensis. A lectotype is designated from among Knowlton's original specimens. The transfer of Brown's so-called Fraxinus samara to Parvileguminophyllum coloradensis (Knowlton) Call and Dilcher comb....