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At the Naturita site in Colorado, USA, groundwaters were sampled and analyzed for chemical composition and by culture and culture-independent microbiological techniques. In addition, sediments were extracted with a dilute sodium carbonate solution to determine quantities of labile uranium within the sediments. Samples from the upgradient portion of the contaminated aquifer, where very little dissolved Fe(II) is found in the groundwater, have uranium content that is controlled by U(VI) adsorption and few metal-reducing bacteria are observed. In the extreme downgradient portion of the aquifer, where dissolved Fe(II) is observed, uranium content of the sediments includes significant quantities of reduced U(IV) and...
At the Naturita site in Colorado, USA, groundwaters were sampled and analyzed for chemical composition and by culture and culture-independent microbiological techniques. In addition, sediments were extracted with a dilute sodium carbonate solution to determine quantities of labile uranium within the sediments. Samples from the upgradient portion of the contaminated aquifer, where very little dissolved Fe(II) is found in the groundwater, have uranium content that is controlled by U(VI) adsorption and few metal-reducing bacteria are observed. In the extreme downgradient portion of the aquifer, where dissolved Fe(II) is observed, uranium content of the sediments includes significant quantities of reduced U(IV) and...
One vital means of raising energy efficiency is to introduce district heating in industry. The aim of this paper is to study factors which promote and inhibit district heating collaborations between industries and utilities. The human factors involved showed to affect district heating collaborations more than anything else does. Particularly risk, imperfect and asymmetric information, credibility and trust, inertia and values are adequate variables when explaining the establishment or failure of industry-energy utility collaborations, while heterogeneity, access to capital and hidden costs appear to be of lower importance. A key conclusion from this study is that in an industry-energy utility collaboration, it is...
Regional systems, increased competition, and environmental imperatives are forcing a reallocation of state and federal regulatory responsibilities for the US electric power sector. The great extent of regional diversity in the sector raises a policy relevant empirical question. Is this diversity due to choice or circumstance? This paper finds circumstance to be a more significant determinant of fundamental performance than choice, but also finds evidence that decisions at the margin reflect the diverse preferences of regional policies. This suggests a continued role for (more responsive) state level regulation in order to satisfy diverse preferences. Uncertainty about the optimal endpoint of restructuring reinforces...
The aim of the Lifestyle project is to analyse the CO 2 emission reduction potential of lifestyle change. The analysis is carried out by examining the direct and the indirect energy contents of the average Dutch household consumption. An overview of the past developments of Dutch sector energy intensities is produced and its consequences for the average household energy requirement are studied. Also differences in energy requirement related to differences in lifestyle are assessed. Calculations of the Dutch household expenditure survey has resulted in an overview of the energy requirement per income and spending subcategory. The correlations between some relevant household factors are determined and discussed.
In this study, we simulate global CO2 emissions and their reduction potentials in the industrial sector up to the year 2030. Future industrial CO2 emissions depend on changes in both technology and industrial activity. However, earlier bottom-up analyses mainly focused on technology change. In this study, we estimate changes in both technology and industrial activity. We developed a three-part simulation system. The first part is a macro economic model that simulates macro economic indicators, such as GDP and value added by sector. The second part consists of industrial production models that simulate future steel and cement production. The third part is a bottom-up type technology model that estimates future CO2...
The Colorado River Basin, poor in water and rich in energy resources, is examined to see if water quality can be sustained for U.S. and Mexican users. Activities to mine, process, transport, and convert resources to energy and to reclaim the land all require water, although development is expected to continue in spite of uncertainties. Projections of water requirements for different energy sources are summarized for the 1990-2000 time period. Restrictions on water supply derive from both quantity limitations and such institutional barriers as water rights and contracts. Projections of the sources and occurrences of salinity levels and pollutants are detailed for each section of the Basin. Salinity is concluded to...
One vital means of raising energy efficiency is to introduce district heating in industry. The aim of this paper is to study factors which promote and inhibit district heating collaborations between industries and utilities. The human factors involved showed to affect district heating collaborations more than anything else does. Particularly risk, imperfect and asymmetric information, credibility and trust, inertia and values are adequate variables when explaining the establishment or failure of industry-energy utility collaborations, while heterogeneity, access to capital and hidden costs appear to be of lower importance. A key conclusion from this study is that in an industry-energy utility collaboration, it is...
At the Naturita site in Colorado, USA, groundwaters were sampled and analyzed for chemical composition and by culture and culture-independent microbiological techniques. In addition, sediments were extracted with a dilute sodium carbonate solution to determine quantities of labile uranium within the sediments. Samples from the upgradient portion of the contaminated aquifer, where very little dissolved Fe(II) is found in the groundwater, have uranium content that is controlled by U(VI) adsorption and few metal-reducing bacteria are observed. In the extreme downgradient portion of the aquifer, where dissolved Fe(II) is observed, uranium content of the sediments includes significant quantities of reduced U(IV) and...