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Chemical pretreatment and extraction techniques have been developed previously to extract in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon (in situ 14C) from quartz and carbonate. These minerals can be found in most environments on Earth, but are usually absent from mafic terrains. To fill this gap, we conducted numerous experiments aimed at extracting in situ 14C from olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4). We were able to extract a stable and reproducible in situ 14C component from olivine using stepped heating and a lithium metaborate (LiBO2) flux, following treatment with dilute HNO3 over a variety of experimental conditions. However, measured concentrations for samples from the Tabernacle Hill basalt flow (17.3 ?? 0.3 ka4) in central Utah and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Radiocarbon
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Groundwater ages, after correcting for chemistry, are greater than 10 ka BP. The groundwater ages do not increase in a downvalley direction, the assumed direction of groundwater movement in most intermontane basins in the region, but along general flow paths normal to the mountains toward the center of the basin. Recharge to the confined aquifer originates from infiltration of precipitation and runoff near the alluvium-mountain contact along the Galiuro Mountains and is discharged by evapotranspiration along the center of the basin. The hydrogeological concept of the 14C model is supported by the water chemistry and by the mass transfer defined by the chemical model. Weathering of primary silicate minerals in the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Radiocarbon
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In this study, we applied a stepped-combustion approach to dating post-bomb lake sediment from north-central Mississippi. Samples were combusted at a low temperature (400 ??C) and then at 900 ??C. The CO2 was collected separately for both combustions and analyzed. The goal of this work was to develop a methodology to improve the accuracy of 14C dating of sediment by combusting at a lower temperature and reducing the amount of reworked carbon bound to clay minerals in the sample material. The 14C fraction modern results for the low and high temperature fractions of these sediments were compared with well-defined 137Cs determinations made on sediment taken from the same cores. Comparison of "bomb curves" for 14C and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Radiocarbon
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Twenty-eight 14C analyses are reported for carbonized roots and other plant material collected from beneath 15 prehistoric lava flows erupted from the northeast rift zone (NERZ) of Mauna Loa Volcano (ML). The new 14C dates establish ages for 13 previously undated lava flows, and correct or add to information previously reported. Limiting ages on other flows that lie either above or below the dated flows are also established. These dates help to unravel the eruptive history of ML's NERZ. -from Authors
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Radiocarbon
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Mollusk shells provide brief (<5 yr per shell) records of past marine conditions, including marine radiocarbon reservoir age (R) and upwelling. We report 21 14C ages and R calculations on small (∼2 mg) samples from 2 Mesodesma donacium (surf clam) shells. These shells were excavated from a semi-subterranean house floor stratum 14C dated to 7625±35 BP at site QJ-280, Quebrada Jaguay, southern Peru. The ranges in marine 14C ages (and thus R) from the 2 shells are 530 and 170 14C yr; R from individual aragonite samples spans 130±60 to 730±170 14C yr. This intrashell 14C variability suggests that 14C dating of small (time-slice much less than 1 yr) marine samples from a variable-R (i.e. variable-upwelling) environment...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Radiocarbon
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Alamagan Volcano is a Quaternary stratovolcano along the Mariana Arc, an active subduction zone in the western Pacific Ocean. Although primarily submerged, its peak reaches above sea level, with subaerially-exposed volcanic deposits dating back through the Holocene to the late Pleistocene. These feature data represent such deposits and other geologic features of Alamagan Volcano, describing its interpreted eruptive history.
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A new automated pretreatment system for the preparation of materials submitted for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis is less time-consuming and results in a higher sample yield. The new procedure was tested using two groups of plant fossils: one group was pretreated using the traditional method, and the second, using the automated pretreatment apparatus. The time it took to complete the procedure and the amount of sample material remaining were compared. The automated pretreatment apparatus proved to be more than three times faster and, in most cases, produced a higher yield. A darker discoloration of the KOH solutions was observed indicating that the automated system is more thorough in removing humates...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Radiocarbon
Our objective is to develop improved integration of data and models of soil and ecosystem processes at the regional scale in order to better quantify change in response disturbances, particularly drought. Specifically, we synthesize existing and generate new datasets of soil properties of soils form the Upper Colorado River Basin region of the Western US. Data types include geospatial databases and maps; soil physical, chemical, and biological datasets; soil hydrologic data; stream and river chemistry associated with regional mapping of soils; model input parameterizations and output data.
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The Weldona 7.5' quadrangle is located on the semiarid plains of northeastern Colorado, along the South Platte River corridor where the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The Pierre Shale is largely covered by surficial deposits that formed from alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes operating in concert with environmental changes from the Pleistocene to the present. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, has played a major role in shaping surficial geology in the map area, which is several tens of kilometers downstream from where headwater tributaries join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters has affected river discharge...
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Continuous monitoring and discrete water-quality sampling were coupled in a karst aquifer to assess drivers and timescales of water-quality change. Water-quality data included environmental tracers of groundwater age (tritium [3H], tritiogenic helium-3 [3He-trit], sulfur hexafluoride [SF6], carbon-14 [14C], and radiogenic helium-4 [4He-rad]). All water quality data is available from the U.S. Geological Survey NWIS database (U.S. Geological Survey, 2019). Groundwater ages were estimated by calibration of environmental tracers to lumped parameter models of groundwater age for multiple samples collected at six groundwater wells using the program TracerLPM (Jurgens and others, 2012). The final estimates for mean groundwater...
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The Fort Morgan 7.5' quadrangle is located on the semiarid plains of northeastern Colorado, along the South Platte River corridor where the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The Pierre Shale is largely covered by surficial deposits that formed from alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes operating in concert with environmental changes from the late Pliocene to the present. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, has played a major role in shaping surficial geology in the map area, which is several tens of kilometers downstream from where headwater tributaries join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters has affected river discharge...
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We describe the design, construction, and testing of a new, simplified in situ radiocarbon extraction system at the University of Arizona. Blank levels for the new system are low ((234 ?? 11) ?? 103 atoms (1 ??; n = 7)) and stable. The precision of a given measurement depends on the concentration of 14C, but is typically <5% for concentrations of 100 ?? 103 atoms g-1 or more. The new system is relatively small and easy to construct, costs significantly less than the original in situ 14C extraction system at Arizona, and lends itself to future automation. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Radiocarbon
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Mammoth Mountain is a dacitic dome complex located on the southwestern rim of Long Valley Caldera, California. Mammoth Mountain has exhibited unrest over the past ~30 years, characterized by seismicity over a broad range of depths, elevated 3He/4He ratios in fumarolic gas and large-scale diffuse CO2 emissions. Monitoring of this unrest has included collection of fumarole gas samples for geochemical analysis and tree cores for radiocarbon analysis of annual growth rings. This report updates the long-term geochemical record at Mammoth Mountain, compiling the chemical and isotopic (d13C-CO2, 3He/4He) compositions of 59 gas samples collected from Mammoth Mountain fumarole from 1998 to 2016. In addition, we report radiocarbon...
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This data release documents two Microsoft Excel tables that contain data for understanding tracer concentrations and groundwater age in the Columbia Plateau aquifer system. Results for geochemical correction of carbon-14, and lumped parameter modeling of groundwater age for the sample network (VPFS, vertical flow path study) are described. Geochemical carbon-14 correction results (RFG) describe geochemical correction of carbon-14 in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) for groundwater age dating. Datasets includes measured water parameters and chemistry, model parameter inputs, and final corrected carbon-14 in DIC. Geochemical correction was completed using the revised Fontes and Granier model of Han and Plummer (2013)....
The reliability of lichenometric dating is dependent on a good understanding of lichen growth rates. The growth rate of lichens can be determined from direct measurement of growing lichens or indirect methods by measuring lichens growing on surfaces of known age, although there are limitations to both approaches. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis has previously been used in only a handful of studies to determine lichen growth rates of two species from a small area of North America. These studies have produced mixed results; a small amount of carbon turnover appears to occur in one of the species (Caloplaca spp.) previously investigated introducing uncertainty in the growth rate, while much higher carbon cycling occurred...
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In conjunction with geologic mapping of four 7.5′ quadrangles along the South Platte River corridor in northeastern Colorado (Masters, Orchard, Weldona, and Fort Morgan), geochronology samples were collected and analyzed using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), radiocarbon (14C), or U-series methods to provide age control for mapping units. This section of river corridor is largely covered by surficial deposits that formed from alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes operating in concert with environmental changes from the Pleistocene to the present. The South Platte River originates high in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and recurrent glaciation of basin headwaters has affected river discharge and sediment...


map background search result map search result map Data release for the geologic map of the Weldona 7.5' quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado Data release of OSL, 14C, and U-series age data supporting geologic mapping along the South Platte River corridor in northeastern Colorado Data release for the geologic map of the Fort Morgan 7.5' quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado Fumarole gas geochemistry and tree-ring radiocarbon data at Mammoth Mountain, California (1989-2016) Data for timescales of water-quality change in a karst aquifer, south-central Texas Lumped parameter models of groundwater age from the Columbia Plateau Aquifer, Vertical Flowpath Study Network Alamagan Volcano - geochronologic points Alamagan Volcano - geochronologic points Fumarole gas geochemistry and tree-ring radiocarbon data at Mammoth Mountain, California (1989-2016) Data release for the geologic map of the Weldona 7.5' quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado Data release for the geologic map of the Fort Morgan 7.5' quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado Data release of OSL, 14C, and U-series age data supporting geologic mapping along the South Platte River corridor in northeastern Colorado Data for timescales of water-quality change in a karst aquifer, south-central Texas Lumped parameter models of groundwater age from the Columbia Plateau Aquifer, Vertical Flowpath Study Network