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We conducted a natural removal experiment, utilizing a local outbreak of sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) as the removal agent, to test the effects of removal of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) on plant and nocturnal rodent assemblages in three grassland habitats (ponderosa, pinyon-juniper, and desert grasslands) in northern Arizona. We measured plant cover, rodent abundance, plant and rodent species richness, and plant and rodent composition at three treatment locations: active prairie dog colonies (n=15), inactive colonies (n=15), and control locations (n=15). Only the amount of plant cover differed significantly among treatments. As landscape level heterogeneity among habitat types increased, rodent...
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A plague (Yersinia pestis) epizootic spread through Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni), and possibly other rodent species, in the Moreno Valley in north-central New Mexico between winter 1984-1985 and autumn 1987. We observed the progress of the epizootic and subsequent population recovery at four prairie dog towns within the valley during this period. At two towns (Midlake and Val Verde) the prairie dogs were marked prior to the epizootic. At two additional towns (Vega and South Entrance) prairie dogs were marked following the epizootic. In 1988, a second epizootic occurred at Vega. One hundred thirty-nine serum samples were collected from prairie dogs and other rodents and 1,750 fleas were collected from...
Flea abundance and body condition data for black-tailed prairie dogs on sites treated and not treated with “FipBit” fipronil pellets. We sampled prairie dogs at Conata Basin, Buffalo Gap National Grassland, and Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. We sampled fleas from live-trapped prairie dogs during June–October 2018, May–October 2019, and July-August 2020. Prairie dogs were sampled before and after FipBit treatments. We anesthetized each prairie dog with isoflurane and combed it thoroughly for 30 seconds to dislodge fleas, which fell into a plastic bin. Fleas were counted and allowed to recover from anesthesia and placed back on prairie dogs, to minimize any removal effect. We weighed prairie dogs with...
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Oral sylvatic plague vaccine baits (SPV) and placebo baits were distributed once annually from 2013-2016 on treated and non-treated paired plots from 2013-2016. Black-tailed prairie dogs (BTPD) were live-trapped and permanently marked with passive integrated transponders and ear tags on 4 pairs of plots each year from 2013-2017 to provide capture/recapture data for use in estimating BTPD survival. The first data set (CMR_SPV_RAW_CAPTURE_DATA.csv) lists all captures and associated covariates with each line representing data from a single prairie dog. The second data set (CMR_BTPD_WEIGHTS.csv) lists the weight and associated information for each prairie dog at each handling. The third data set (CMR_FLEAS_BY_HOST.csv)...
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Data on the degree and duration of deltamethrin flea control on prairie dog colonies, with 3 prairie dog species at 6 sites across 3 US states. Fleas were combed (COMB) from live-trapped prairie dogs or swabbed (SWAB) from prairie dog burrows on non-treated (Non) sites and nearby sites treated with deltamethrin dust for flea control (Dusted). Each line of data is from an individual prairie dog or burrow. The first set of data, Shortterm BACI, includes data from before-after-control-impact (BACI) experiments comparing the abundance of fleas on prairie dogs at paired non-treated and treated sites in 2 time intervals: before treatments (Before) and 2 to 65 days after treatments (After). The second set of data, Moderate...
Data were collected to investigate effects of deltamethrin and fipronil on ectoparasites from black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, USA. In late-July 2018, we treated 3 sites with 0.05% deltamethrin dust and 5 sites with host-fed 0.005% fipronil grain. Three non-treated sites functioned as experimental baselines. We collected ectoparasites before treatments (June-July 2018) and after treatments (August-October 2018, June-July 2019). We combed ectoparasites from live-trapped, anesthetized prairie dogs. Trapping on treated and non-treated sites occurred simultaneously or nearly simultaneously in each year. Detected ectoparasites were counted and placed back on the prairie dogs from which they were collected to...
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We collected fleas from colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in Badlands National Park, South Dakota, 2020-2021. Specifically, we tested fipronil grain for flea control on two colonies: Colony A in 2020 and Colony B in 2021. To assess on-host flea numbers (in 2020 and 2021), we anesthetized trapped prairie dogs (and their fleas) with isoflurane in induction chambers for processing. We combed each individual with a fine-tooth comb for 30 seconds to remove and count fleas. We released all animals, after they were recovered from anesthesia, at the location where they were captured. To assess off-host flea numbers (in 2021), we used a plumber’s cable to insert a 20- by 20-centimeter flannel-cloth as deep as possible...
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We live-trapped black-tailed prairie dogs on Buffalo Gap National Grassland, South Dakota, 2020-2021. We anesthetized trapped animals (and their fleas) with isoflurane in induction chambers for processing. We combed each individual with a fine-tooth comb for 30 seconds to remove and count fleas. The total flea count from an individual prairie dog was considered an index of flea abundance. We released all animals, after they were recovered from anesthesia, at the location where they were captured. Data were collected on sites treated with fipronil "FipBit" bait pellets for systemic flea control with prairie dogs. Sites were treated with FipBits containing 0.68, 0.71, or 0.83 milligrams of fipronil per FipBit. The...
Of the 3 major factors (habitat loss, poisoning, and disease) that limit abundance of prairie dogs today, sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis is the I factor that is beyond human control. Plague epizootics frequently kill > 99% of prairie dogs in infected colonies. Although epizootics of sylvatic plague occur throughout most of the range of prairie dogs in the United States and are well described, long-term maintenance of plague in enzootic rodent species is not well documented or understood. We review dynamics of plague in white-tailed (Cynomys leucurus), Gunnison's (C gunnisoni), and black-tailed (C ludovicianus) prairie dogs, and their rodent and flea associates. We use epidemiologic concepts to support...
Data on annual population change for prairie dogs in Montana and Utah, USA, 2000-2005. Prairie dog species included black-tailed prairie dogs (PDs) (BTPD, Cynomys ludovicianus) in north-central Montana, white-tailed PDs (WTPD, Cynomys leucurus) in eastern Utah, and Utah PDs (UPD, Cynomys parvidens) in southwestern Utah. Field research was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, and colleagues. Data were collected on paired plots. Each pair included a plot treated annually with deltamethrin dust for flea control and plague mitigation and a plot left untreated as baselines. Paired plots had similar ecological features on the same (split) or nearby (separate) colonies. One plot within...
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We studied black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Conata Basin, Buffalo Gap National Grassland, South Dakota, USA, 2007-2009. We live-trapped and sampled prairie dogs in 2007 (before known invasion of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis), 2008 (the year of confirmed invasion), and 2009 (after invasion). Sampling was completed on three 9-ha plots treated annually with deltamethrin dust for flea (Y. pestis-vector) control and three 9-ha plots lacking flea control (non-dusted) as baselines. Each live-trapped prairie dog was marked with ear tags for permanent identification and tracking of survival. If a marked prairie dog was recaptured and identified (via ear tags) the following year, the prairie...
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We live-trapped and sampled black-tailed prairie dogs in Badlands National Park and Buffalo Gap National Grassland, South Dakota, 2017-2020. Sampling occurred on sites treated with 0.005% fipronil grain for flea control and plague mitigation, and non-treated sites functioning as experimental baselines. Prairie dogs were trapped, sexed, aged (adult or juvenile by size), weighed to the nearest 5 grams, and marked with ear tags for permanent identification. The length of each prairie dog's right hind foot was measured to the nearest millimeter, and the animal's body condition was indexed as a mass:foot ratio. We evaluated effects of fipronil grain on prairie dog body condition, monthly and annual survival, and reproduction....
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We collected fecal pellets from six black-tailed prairie dogs in captivity. Prairie dogs were provided free access to non-treated grain (oat groats) or fipronil-treated grain for 5 days. Two prairie dogs received non-treated grain and four prairie dogs received fipronil grain. During each day of the feeding trial, prairie dog fecal pellets were collected, stored in sealable plastic bags, labeled by treatment, and frozen. Fecal pellets from days 2, 3, 4, and 5 were placed in 1.5 milliliter (mL) centrifuge tubes, ground into morsels and powder (fine particles for flea larvae to eat) with a disposable polypropylene pestle, separated as 0.50 milligram (mg) subsamples into pre-labeled centrifuge tubes, and frozen. Oropsylla...
In 2013, a large blinded, paired placebo-controlled field trial for the prairie dog oral sylvatic plague vaccine started in the Western US. On 17 paired plots, vaccine and placebo plots, small rodents were trapped annually for 3-5 consecutive nights (when weather allowed) and high elevation Utah plots where plague was active were more frequently trapped in 2014 and 2015. In the dataset the prevalence of flea infestation was recorded for the first annual summer sampling, it was summarized for all small rodent species caught and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Infestations were either for all flea species collected or for Aetheca wagneri only (our most abundant flea species). We used this data to assess if plague...
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Data on factors that affect the grooming behaviors of black-tailed prairie dogs in Phillips County, Montana, 2006. Each line of data presents information for a focal observation of a single black-tailed prairie dog. The data includes information on the date of each observation, the approximate coordinates of sites, the time of each observation, indexed wind speed, indexed temperature, the presence or absence of deltamethrin dust (pulicide) treatment, the amount of time a human spent observing the prairie dog, the proportion of time spent scratching by the prairie dog, the proportion of time spent oral autogrooming by the prairie dog, the proportion of time spent allogrooming by the prairie dog, and the overall proportion...
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We collected fleas from a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs on Buffalo Gap National Grassland, South Dakota, 2021. We collected flea data by combing prairie dogs and swabbing their burrows for fleas. Regarding combing, we anesthetized trapped prairie dogs (and their fleas) with isoflurane in induction chambers for processing. We combed each individual with a fine-tooth comb for 30 seconds to remove and count fleas. We released all animals, after they were recovered from anesthesia, at the location where they were captured. Regarding burrow swabbing, we used a plumber’s cable to insert a 20- by 20-centimeter flannel-cloth as deep as possible into burrow tunnels. We then shook the cable for 30 seconds to imitate...
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Data on prairie dog densities, flea abundance on prairie dogs, and plague epizootics in Montana and Utah, USA, 2003-2005. Prairie dog species (PDspecies in the data file) included black-tailed prairie dogs (PDs) (BTPD, Cynomys ludovicianus) in north-central Montana, white-tailed PDs (WTPD, Cynomys leucurus) in eastern Utah, and Utah PDs (UPD, Cynomys parvidens) in southwestern Utah. Field research was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, and colleagues. We used summertime visual counts as an index to PD densities (Pddensity in the data file). For each plot, we counted PDs using binoculars and/or spotting scopes from a single location outside the plot that gave the best view of the...
Several species of raptors winter at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) including the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), and Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus). Raptors were monitored each winter from 1988-89 to 1996-97 using a standardized road survey. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) form a major component of the prey base for wintering raptors on the Refuge, with 1850 ha of active prairie dog towns mapped in 1988. Prairie dog town areas and population data were determined by mapping active towns and conducting visual counts on study plots to determine population density on an annual basis from 1988...
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Data on flea parasitism and annual re-encounters of Utah prairie dogs at 5 colonies on the Awapa Plateau, Utah, USA, June-August 2013-2016. Utah prairie dogs were live-trapped and sampled on 5 colonies along an elevation gradient from 2,645 m to 2,873 m. Upon first capture each year, we anesthetized each prairie dog and fleas on its body and combed the prairie dog as thoroughly as possible for 30 s to collect fleas. We recorded the age (juvenile/adult), sex, and mass (nearest 5 g) of each prairie dog and marked its ears and body with metal tags and passive integrated transponders, respectively, for permanent identification. We indexed each prairie dog's body condition as the ratio between its weight and hind-foot...


map background search result map search result map Dynamics of plague in a Gunnison's prairie dog colony complex from New Mexico Grooming behaviors of black-tailed prairie dogs in Phillips County, Montana, 2006 Data on the Degree and Duration of Deltamethrin Flea Control on Prairie Dog Colonies in Montana, South Dakota, and Utah, USA Data on Flea Parasitism and Annual Re-encounters of Utah Prairie Dogs at 5 colonies on the Awapa Plateau, Utah, USA, 2013-2016 Data on the effects of deltamethrin and fipronil on black-tailed prairie dog ectoparasites, South Dakota, USA, 2018–2019 Data on prairie dog densities, flea abundance, and plague epizootics in Montana and Utah, USA Flea abundance and body condition data for black-tailed prairie dogs on sites treated and not treated with “FipBit” fipronil pellets, South Dakota, 2018-2020 Black-tailed prairie dog capture data from plots treated and not treated with oral plague vaccine from 2013-2017 in Montana Data on finite population change for 3 species of prairie dogs in Montana and Utah, USA, 2000-2005 Data on black-tailed prairie dog body condition, annual and monthly survival, and reproduction on sites treated or not treated with 0.005% fipronil grain for flea control and plague mitigation in South Dakota, USA, 2017-2020 Data on flea control using fipronil grain bait with black-tailed prairie dogs at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, 2020-2021 Data on flea control using FipBit fipronil bait pellets with black-tailed prairie dogs, South Dakota, 2020-2021 Data on flea control using lufenuron and nitenpyram baits with black-tailed prairie dogs, South Dakota, 2021 Data on flea larvae survival following exposure to black-tailed prairie dog scat, 2016-2018 Data on the effects of F1-V plague antigen vaccination and deltamethrin dust on black-tailed prairie dog annual survival and flea parasitism, South Dakota, 2007-2009 Grooming behaviors of black-tailed prairie dogs in Phillips County, Montana, 2006 Black-tailed prairie dog capture data from plots treated and not treated with oral plague vaccine from 2013-2017 in Montana Dynamics of plague in a Gunnison's prairie dog colony complex from New Mexico Data on flea larvae survival following exposure to black-tailed prairie dog scat, 2016-2018 Data on the effects of deltamethrin and fipronil on black-tailed prairie dog ectoparasites, South Dakota, USA, 2018–2019 Flea abundance and body condition data for black-tailed prairie dogs on sites treated and not treated with “FipBit” fipronil pellets, South Dakota, 2018-2020 Data on flea control using FipBit fipronil bait pellets with black-tailed prairie dogs, South Dakota, 2020-2021 Data on flea control using lufenuron and nitenpyram baits with black-tailed prairie dogs, South Dakota, 2021 Data on the effects of F1-V plague antigen vaccination and deltamethrin dust on black-tailed prairie dog annual survival and flea parasitism, South Dakota, 2007-2009 Data on flea control using fipronil grain bait with black-tailed prairie dogs at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, 2020-2021 Data on black-tailed prairie dog body condition, annual and monthly survival, and reproduction on sites treated or not treated with 0.005% fipronil grain for flea control and plague mitigation in South Dakota, USA, 2017-2020 Data on Flea Parasitism and Annual Re-encounters of Utah Prairie Dogs at 5 colonies on the Awapa Plateau, Utah, USA, 2013-2016 Data on the Degree and Duration of Deltamethrin Flea Control on Prairie Dog Colonies in Montana, South Dakota, and Utah, USA Data on prairie dog densities, flea abundance, and plague epizootics in Montana and Utah, USA Data on finite population change for 3 species of prairie dogs in Montana and Utah, USA, 2000-2005