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Partnerships - California Fish Passage Forum, Pacific Marine and Estuarine Fish Habitat Partnership, Western Native Trout Initiative, and Desert Fish Habitat Partnership Partnerships supported the removal of 59 barriers that reconnected 114 miles of native trout habitat and 14.5 miles of coastal streams to be used by threatened and endangered anadromous species. Funded estuarine restoration of 500 acres in Washington and 519 acres in Oregon. Sponsored the installation of one barrier to protect native trout from introduced species. Partnerships funded 24 population assessments of inland stream native trout species and three assessments of fish assemblages in habitats of Coos estuary, Oregon. Assessments provide...
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There are three designated megaregions in the Pacific Coast States: Southern California, with a population of 22.4 million; Northern California, with a population of 14.6 million; and Cascadia (from Vancouver, British Columbia to Eugene, Oregon), with a population of 8.4 million. These areas have enormous effects on both the inland and coastal aquatic habitats. Continual development increases areas of impervious surfaces (completely altering natural water flows and hydrology) and the amount of sewage discharge, sediments, and other pollutants associated with urbanization. Ever increasing urban water needs can be far reaching and affect systems and fish habitat far away from the urban areas. Los Angeles, which is...
The Columbia River historically supported one of the greatest salmon and steelhead runs on Earth. Prior to the 1840s, up to 16 million salmon and steelhead returned to the Columbia River to spawn each year. Unfortunately, by the end of the 20th century that number declined to less than 1 million fish annually. In response to the severe population declines of Columbia River salmon by the 1990s, as the result of habitat degradation in the basin, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) designated 13 stocks of anadromous salmonids as Federally threatened or endangered with extinction under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). There are currently 28 listed stocks of salmon and steelhead, plus an additional three more...
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The Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is widely distributed within the region and occupies a variety of large lakes, small headwater streams and larger river systems. Of all the native salmonids in the Pacific Northwest, the Bull Trout generally has the most specific habitat requirements, which are often referred to as “the four Cs”: cold, clean, complex, and connected habitat. In November 1999, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed all Bull Trout populations within the lower 48 States of the United States as threatened pursuant to the Endangered Species Act. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s 2015 Bull Trout Recovery Plan lists historical habitat loss and fragmentation; interactions with nonnative species...
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Partnership - Western Native Trout Initiative The Redband Trout, a group of Rainbow Trout, are remarkable fish. Some live as freshwater fish and some as anadromous fish that occupy both fresh and saltwater habitats during different stages of their lives. The interior Redband Trout is listed as a “Species of Conservation Concern” in most of its range. Its historic range covers eastern Washington and Oregon, northeastern California, central and southwestern Idaho, northwestern Montana, and parts of northern Nevada. Within this broad area, Redband Trout habitat can vary from higher elevation cold-water mountain streams to lower elevation warmer desert-type streams that have periods of low stream flows and high water...
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The Delta Smelt (Crystallaria asprella) is only found in the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta in California and requires estuaries for juvenile and adult habitat along with the ability to migrate into tributary rivers to spawn in the spring. Declines of Delta Smelt can largely be attributed to the changes and fluctuations in flow of the estuarine ecosystem. Reduced flows resulting from water projects have resulted in saltwater intrusion into the Delta, which has reduced the amount of preferred habitat for spawning and nursery areas. When increased amounts of water are released by the water projects, larvae and adults become entrained and die, and both the fish themselves and the food they depend on are washed...
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Partnership - Desert Fish Habitat Partnership Shoshone Pupfish are one of the most imperiled species in the Death Valley region due to their natural rarity, historic disruption of their habitats, lack of replication of the one remaining population, and genetic effects of small population size. Shoshone Spring and wetlands have been owned by one family for over 50 years. Endemic Shoshone Pupfish were considered extinct by 1969, but rediscovered in a ditch near the springs in 1986. A single pond was built and stocked with 75 of these fish, believed to be the last of their kind. The purpose of the project was to construct two new additional habitats, one secluded in a mesquite bosque, and one in a landscaped...
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While this assessment has found that many of the inland streams were at a low or very low risk of degradation, some fish habitat disturbances, including water diversions, timber harvest practices, and intensity of livestock grazing in watersheds, could not be directly included in this assessment because national datasets of these disturbances and their component variables are unavailable. These disturbances are known to have major, negative effects on fish habitats in this region. Their absence from this assessment, along with absences of other disturbances, has likely produced an overestimation of habitat condition (quality) for some water bodies. These gaps need to be kept in mind while examining the results....
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The Columbia River is the fourth largest river by volume in North America, draining an area the size of France (670,000 square kilometers). There are 14 dams on the main stem of the Columbia River and more than 450 dams throughout the entire Columbia Basin. The dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries produce half of the electricity used in the Pacific Northwest. These dams have completely altered river habitat and significantly changed the river’s flow, water quality, and Pacific salmon spawning runs along with the survival of out-migrating smolts. By discharge, the Sacramento River is the second largest river on the west coast of the contiguous United States, after only the Columbia River, which has almost...
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Both Green (Acipenser medirostris) and White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are long-lived species with delayed and intermittent spawning that require large amounts of connected habitat to complete their life cycle. Both species use inshore marine and estuarine habitat along with rivers for juvenile and adult habitat and require clean substrates in rivers to successfully spawn. Hydropower dams are barriers to movements of these species in Pacific rivers and have negatively affected spawning success by creating unstable daily water flow patterns through peaking power operations as has been documented in other sturgeon species. For example, the fragmentation of the Columbia River by dams has created 17 land-locked...
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Map of the risk of current fish habitat degradation of inland streams of the Pacific Coast States.
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A. Pervasive disturbances: The most common disturbances based on total stream length in a given region. Top five overall most pervasive disturbances to all stream reaches, regardless of stream size and across all spatial scales (ranked highest first): Impervious surface cover Total anthropogenic sediment yield Upstream dam density Industrial water withdrawal High intensity urban land use Top three most pervasive disturbances to creeks (watersheds <100 km 2 in area) across all spatial scales: Total anthropogenic (human caused) sediment yield Impervious surface cover Industrial water withdrawal Top three most pervasive disturbances to rivers (watersheds >100 km 2 in area) across all spatial scales : Road...
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Agriculture was highly influential on the fish habitat assessment of the Pacific Coastal States. One of the broadest areas implicated is the California Central Valley that extends 450 miles from Redding to Bakersfield. This region grows a wide variety of row crops and fruit trees and supports abundant cattle and dairy farms. Another region of very high risk is Willamette Valley in Oregon, where crops such as berries, vegetables, sod, and vineyards are grown. Silviculture, particularly large-scale timber clearcuts, is another significant agricultural practice in this area. Also at high risk are aquatic habitats in eastern Washington between Spokane and Walla Walla, where wheat, hay, potatoes and apples are the dominant...
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The Sacramento River represents by far the largest population of returning Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). There are four distinct spawning runs of Chinook Salmon; fall, late fall, winter, and spring. Historically, maximum spawning runs in the Central Valley approached 2 million salmon including: 100,000 late-fall fish; 200,000 winter fish; 700,000 spring fish; and 900,000 early fall fish. Current spawning sizes are a fragment of historic numbers and some of the spawning runs are listed stocks under the Federal Endangered Species Act. In 2009, total Chinook Salmon spawning populations were fewer than 69,000 salmon including: 50,000 fall fish; 10,000 late-fall fish; 3,800 spring fish; and 4,700 winter...
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Partnership - Pacific Marine and Estuarine Fish Habitat Partnership Milltown Island historically was an estuarine wetland and is located in the Skagit River tidal delta in Washington. However, beginning in the late 1800s the island was diked and disconnected from the Skagit River and Bay. There was, and still is a great deal of local interest in this and many other projects on the Skagit River watershed because of the desire to restore estuaries and wetlands and improve habitat for native fish. Current fish assemblage includes 14 native species: Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Chum Salmon, Pink Salmon, Cutthroat Trout, Steelhead Trout, Mountain Whitefish, Three Spined Stickleback, Peamouth Chub, Prickly Sculpin,...
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The rivers of the Pacific Coast states are heavily altered by dams and diversions ( over 1,400 dams in California, 1,039 in Oregon, 1,174 in Washington ). The dams generally are used for hydropower generation, irrigation, and transportation, all essential to supporting the region’s extensive agricultural and manufacturing (aluminum, aircraft, shipbuilding) industries. Dams create problems for fish such as salmon and steelhead by interrupting or halting their migration from the Pacific to upstream habitats and killing large numbers of young salmon (smolts) as they move downstream through powerhouses or spillways. Numbers of salmon and steelhead have declined drastically from historic levels, and many populations...


    map background search result map search result map Habitat Trouble for Green and White Sturgeon in Pacific Coast States Summary of scientific findings for Pacific Coast States Habitat Trouble for Pacific Chinook Salmon and Coho Salmon in Pacific Coast States Description of Urban Land Use as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Pacific Coast States Fish Habitat Partnerships Making a Difference: Interior Redband Trout Range-wide Assessment Pacific Coast States - Risk of Current Fish Habitat Degradation Map Fish Habitat Partnership Activities for the Pacific Coast States Fish Habitat Partnerships Making a Difference in the Death Valley Region Habitat Trouble for Bull Trout in Pacific Coast States Facts About Pacific Coast States Description of Agriculture as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Pacific Coast States Habitat Trouble for Delta Smelt in Pacific Coast States Description of Dams and Diversions Use as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Pacific Coast States Most Pervasive and Severe Disturbances for the Pacific Coast States Habitat Trouble for Green and White Sturgeon in Pacific Coast States Summary of scientific findings for Pacific Coast States Habitat Trouble for Pacific Chinook Salmon and Coho Salmon in Pacific Coast States Description of Urban Land Use as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Pacific Coast States Pacific Coast States - Risk of Current Fish Habitat Degradation Map Fish Habitat Partnership Activities for the Pacific Coast States Fish Habitat Partnerships Making a Difference in the Death Valley Region Habitat Trouble for Bull Trout in Pacific Coast States Facts About Pacific Coast States Description of Agriculture as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Pacific Coast States Habitat Trouble for Delta Smelt in Pacific Coast States Description of Dams and Diversions Use as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Pacific Coast States Most Pervasive and Severe Disturbances for the Pacific Coast States Fish Habitat Partnerships Making a Difference: Interior Redband Trout Range-wide Assessment