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(1) This written report summarizes and synthesizes results of literature review, interviews, and workshops, providing the scientific basis for and extension strategies for the management recommendations provided in the "green website" [Data Input New Collection]. The report includes an addendum regarding reference bibliographies and a references list with citations. (2) Selected, unusual references that are not readily available online or through standard academic sources were collected by the project. (3) Selected photographs are retained by the project in electronic form.
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Loko iʻa (Hawaiian fishponds) are an advanced, extensive form of aquaculture found nowhere else in the world. Loko iʻa practices are the result of over a thousand years of intergenerational knowledge, experimentation, and adaptation, and once produced over 2 million pounds of fish per year throughout the Hawaiian Islands. These fishponds provided a consistent and diverse supply of fish when ocean fishing was not possible or did not yield enough supply. In many ways, loko iʻa are foundational to traditional aquaculture in Hawai‘i and have the potential to provide food security that contributes to greater coastal community resilience and economic autonomy. Today, changes in coastal and hydrological processes, including...
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This folder contains 7 excel files with data from a household questionnaire survey (N=199) conducted for the Marshall Islands Climate and Migration project. The fieldwork took place in March and April 2017. Besides the excel file, the folder also contains the original questionnaire in PDF format. The questionniare looked at livelihood, perceptions of climate change and ecosystem services and migration behaviour. The excel files are 1 file for the main questionnaire data and 6 additional files with data from tables in the questionnaire. Each variable in the questionnaire starts with a Leter (A-K) and a number. This refers to the question number in the questionnaire. The databases uses 3 codes for missing values:...
The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is a nation of widely dispersed, low-lying coral atolls and islands, with over 100 square miles of land area scattered across 750,000 square miles of ocean. Average elevation for the RMI is approximately 7 feet above mean sea level, but many islands and atolls are much lower. As climate change causes sea level to rise and weather patterns to shift, the Marshall Islands are increasingly having to contend with flooding and drought that damages agriculture, homes, and infrastructure. Residents are increasingly making the difficult choice to leave their home islands in the hope of a more stable future, moving within the country to larger islands or to the United States where...
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Agriculture and agroforestry (tree cultivation) are important activities for the Marshall Islands and other small islands to ensure food security and human health. The Marshallese have a long tradition of interplanting food-producing trees such as coconuts, breadfruit, and pandanus with bananas and root and vegetable crops. Locally grown food crops support community self-sufficiency, promote good nutrition, and can also serve as windbreaks and stabilize shorelines to lessen storm damage and erosion. However, climate change is posing serious challenges for growers, as they struggle to adapt to climate impacts including saltwater intrusion, changing precipitation and temperature patterns, and the spread of invasive...
This website provides access to a broad range of information related to seasonal climate variability in the Republic of the Marshall Isalnds. It includes a quick-look at current and future conditions for a range of climate indicators, direct access to more detailed outlook-related information from stations and statellites, and products that place this information in a histrorical context. It also includes links to addtional sources of information.
The Marshall Islands Climate and Migration Project studies the multicausal nature of Marshallese migration, as well as its effects on migrants themselves and on home communities (van der Geest et al., 2019). It does so through people-centred research, seeking the views of Marshallese migrants and their relatives in the Marshall Islands. The research has a special focus on how impacts of climate change affect ecosystem services, livelihoods and migration decisions. This policy brief highlights key findings of the migration component of the research. It presents data and findings on migration patterns, drivers and impacts. It ends with a discussion of the results, with a focus on the tension between being prepared...
This study aims to clarify the extent to which Marshallese people are already migrating because of climate change, and the role affected ecosystem services play in their migration decisions. The research also aims to better understand the effects of this migration on migrants themselves, among communities in the RMI (in the capital of Majuro, and on Mejit and Maleolap), and in destination states (Hawai‘i, Oregon, and Washington). Finally, the research provides an analysis of shared views found within Marshallese perceptions on these subjects, which allows for a more fulsome assessment of the current state of well-being for Marshallese migrants, contributes to a more informed discussion regarding whether migration...
The 37 islands of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) are low-lying atolls and islands, making the country extremely vulnerable to climate change impacts. The goal of this research was to provide easilyaccessible decision-making tools for managers, decision-makers and the public to assist in planning for agroforestry in the face of increasing drought and sea level rise (SLR). A team of researchers and climate change adaptation specialists from the RMI and the U.S. was responsible for the effort. Although the RMI is heavily reliant on imported food, local foods are still important in providing nutrients lacking in imported foods and has cultural importance. The role of plants in stabilizing shorelines is increasingly...
The “Coral Atoll Agroforestry Plant Screener” is a simple plant sorting tool designed and built specifically for use on the coral atolls and islands of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The purpose of this tool is to improve plant resiliency and protect island ecosystems by selecting and planting non-invasive species that are better able to withstand extreme conditions brought on by changing climates. It is a revised version of the NRCS PIA Vegetative Guide (see “Data Input Existing Collection in the Data Management Plan”).
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As one of the lowest-lying island nation-states in the world, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is acutely vulnerable to sea-level rise, flooding, and the associated intrusion of saltwater into crucial freshwater supplies. Persistent drought is further affecting agricultural production in the RMI. Many Marshallese communities are already experiencing these changes and are migrating to larger islands within the RMI and to other countries like the U.S. to, among other things, seek alternative means of making a living and access healthcare. The number of Marshallese residing in the U.S. has rapidly risen over the past two decades, from 7,000 in 2000 to 22,000 in 2010. There is also substantial internal migration,...
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Hawai‘i’s isolation, paired with limited water resources, make the archipelago sensitive to reductions in water availability. Drought can take different forms, varying across Island geographies with respect to frequency, intensity, duration, and extent. A drought event can exert hydrological, agricultural, ecological, and socio-economic impacts – and these impacts have been growing over the past century as droughts have become more frequent and severe. While the impacts of drought in Hawai‘i have been recently documented, important gaps remain in understanding these dynamics when engaging with multiple other stressors such as invasive species, shifting fire and climate patterns, pests, and pathogens. In particular,...
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This folder contains 2 excel files with data from a household questionnaire survey (N=79) conducted for the Marshall Islands Climate and Migration project. The fieldwork took place in Hawaii (July-August 2017) and the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington, October-November 2017) . Besides the excel files (one for Hawaii and one for the Pacific Northwest), the folder also contains the original questionnaire in PDF format. The questionniare looked at livelihood, perceptions of climate change and ecosystem services and migration behaviour.
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The Climate Adaptation Science Centers have conducted numerous training and skills development activities to support tribal and indigenous partners as they seek to use scientific information and techniques to understand and respond to climate change impacts. Because these activities were generated in different CASC regions, with different tribal / indigenous stakeholders, climate change contexts, and training needs, and because the CASC network encourages innovation, these activities were not developed or implemented in a nationally consistent format. This project seeks to identify relevant activities, gather related materials and links that might benefit others seeking to implement similar activities, provide a...
This policy brief explores the relationship between COFA and the Marshallese experience under the conditions of a changing climate and a documented increase in migration. It begins by providing a legal overview of the History of the Strategic Trust Territories of the Pacific and Nuclear Tests, as well as the COFA Compact Negotiations and the Nuclear Legacy. Following this, it focuses on key Migration Status information found within COFA, coupled with more general comments on Recent Migration Trends. The brief then reviews COFA and MICMP Research Findings, presenting the challenges and opportunities the Marshallese currently face within the RMI and in destination states (Hawai‘i, Washington, and Oregon) with respect...
Website intended for use by agricultural extension agents in the Marshall Islands. The website is also a "dashboard" insofar as it automatically updates displays of weather and climate information at least monthly, drawing from the "Marshall Islands Climate Outlook" (blue website) and National Weather Service ENSO Alert System. Multiple tabs lead to pages encompassing short, medium and long-term weather and climate information, and agroforestry recommendations varying by ENSO status. Extension summaries with text, figures and photos. Prepared in English with some translation into Marshallese. Specifically, best management practices (with specific recommendations), and case studies (to share information and experience...
[In English: Migration in the Marshall Islands, climate change and the role of ecosystem services. By Brittany Lauren Wheeler on behalf of the “Climate and Migration in the Marshall Islands ” Project.]
As one of the lowest-lying island nation states in the world, the Republic of the Marshall Islands is vulnerable to sea level rise, flooding and the associated impacts on soil and water salinity. Persistent drought is further affecting agricultural production and access to drinking water, and heat stress is increasingly common. The number of Marshallese people residing in the USA has increased rapidly from 6650 in 2000 to an estimated 30,000 in 2018. While we know that climate change is already affecting the Marshall Islands and that there are significant migration flows, we do not know to what extent people already migrate because of climate change. This paper addresses this gap and presents findings from interdisciplinary...
This study aims to clarify the extent to which Marshallese people are already migrating because of climate change, and the role affected ecosystem services play in their migration decisions. The research also aims to better understand the effects of this migration on migrants themselves, among communities in the RMI (in the capital of Majuro, and on Mejit and Maleolap), and in destination states (Hawai‘i, Oregon, and Washington). Finally, the research provides an analysis of shared views found within Marshallese perceptions on these subjects, which allows for a more fulsome assessment of the current state of well-being for Marshallese migrants, contributes to a more informed discussion regarding whether migration...


    map background search result map search result map Developing an Agroforestry Dashboard for the Marshall Islands Understanding the Effect of Climate Change on the Migration of Marshallese Islanders Science Needs Assessment to Support Management of Loko Iʻa (Hawaiian Fishpond) Resources and Practices Critical to the Native Hawaiian Community RMI Questionnaire data of the Marshall Islands Climate and Migration Project US Questionnaire data of the Marshall Islands Climate and Migration Project Synthesis of CASC-Led Climate Training Activities for Tribes and Indigenous Communities Malo‘o ka lani, wela ka honua (When the sky is dry, the earth is parched): Investigating the Cultural Dimensions of Indigenous Local Knowledge Responses to Changing Climate Conditions US Questionnaire data of the Marshall Islands Climate and Migration Project RMI Questionnaire data of the Marshall Islands Climate and Migration Project Developing an Agroforestry Dashboard for the Marshall Islands Understanding the Effect of Climate Change on the Migration of Marshallese Islanders Science Needs Assessment to Support Management of Loko Iʻa (Hawaiian Fishpond) Resources and Practices Critical to the Native Hawaiian Community Malo‘o ka lani, wela ka honua (When the sky is dry, the earth is parched): Investigating the Cultural Dimensions of Indigenous Local Knowledge Responses to Changing Climate Conditions Synthesis of CASC-Led Climate Training Activities for Tribes and Indigenous Communities