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Regional economic impact assessment (REIA) and social impact assessment (SIA) are methodologically close, since REIA provides predictions of change in employment both directly and indirectly resulting from a project, thereby giving some indication of future population changes, derived demand for social services and infrastructure, and the likely regional social mix. There are, however, a number of theoretical difficulties with conventional REIAs. As extrapolations they normally avoid discussion of processes of structural change, which could result in substantial changes within the time horizon of a project. Another issue is the justification for including secondary project impacts in assessing a project's worth....
Many of the most cost-effective options for reducing emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) involve: reducing leaks; responsible handling practices; replacement with a substance with little or no global warming potential; or reducing the amount of the greenhouse gas (GHG) needed. Some of these options can be implemented immediately for quick emission reductions. However, because many of the types of equipment that rely on these gases have lifetimes ranging from 10 to 30 years, fully implementing these emission reductions can take decades. Reductions in HFC consumption, however, can generally be seen more immediately. Recent US proposals for climate legislation have considered limits on HFC consumption under a cap...
As electricity demand increases, policymakers must make decisions about which energy resources will meet future demands. Much of the recent literature has focused on the contribution of new coal power plants to carbon emissions (Milford et al., 2005; Milford et al., 2007; MIT 2007). However, policymakers and industry are increasingly interested in job creation and economic development analyses to understand the full impacts of new electricity generation projects.1 Additionally, economic development impacts are often a critical piece in building public support for wind power projects. The purpose of this research is to look at the specific factors that drive wind-power-related economic development and to better understand...
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are greenhouse gases with high global warming potentials that are mainly used in refrigeration and air conditioning. Historically, they were emitted only slowly from such systems and long term containment remains an important engineering and environmental issue. As part of their commitment under the Rio convention, nations are required to report annual calculated production and emissions of all greenhouse gases and the reports submitted by the European countries have been examined to determine the extent to which containment of HFCs (expressed as the rate of emission from the bank remaining in equipment) has changed with time. Although there is wide variation between countries, the annual...
SILMU, which runs from 1990 to 1995, aims at studying climate change and its impacts. It also seeks to provide information to Finnish policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The topics range from air chemisrty to sociology, and the total number of projects is 74. Interim evaluation of the programme was carded out in 1992. During the second half of SILMU, 10 % of the total budget (total: 14 Million ECU) has been devoted to programme integration.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: History, energy, prices
Climate change influences the water balance of drainage basins in several ways. In a project of the International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin the possible consequences for the discharge regime of the Rhine are investigated. In the first phase of this project detailed models have been developed and applied for selected sub-basins and a simple water balance model has been developed for the whole Rhine basin. Results are presented for climate scenarios assuming an increase in temperature of about 3~ and an increase in annual precipitation. The consequences of such a climate change are largest in the Alpine part of the Rhine basin, and are also considerable in other parts of the basin and for the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: History, energy, prices
This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent.
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are greenhouse gases with high global warming potentials that are mainly used in refrigeration and air conditioning. Historically, they were emitted only slowly from such systems and long term containment remains an important engineering and environmental issue. As part of their commitment under the Rio convention, nations are required to report annual calculated production and emissions of all greenhouse gases and the reports submitted by the European countries have been examined to determine the extent to which containment of HFCs (expressed as the rate of emission from the bank remaining in equipment) has changed with time. Although there is wide variation between countries, the annual...
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are greenhouse gases with high global warming potentials that are mainly used in refrigeration and air conditioning. Historically, they were emitted only slowly from such systems and long term containment remains an important engineering and environmental issue. As part of their commitment under the Rio convention, nations are required to report annual calculated production and emissions of all greenhouse gases and the reports submitted by the European countries have been examined to determine the extent to which containment of HFCs (expressed as the rate of emission from the bank remaining in equipment) has changed with time. Although there is wide variation between countries, the annual...
Abstract: Applying the ecosystem services concept to conservation initiatives or in managing ecosystem services requires understanding how environmental impacts affect the ecology of key species or functional groups providing the services. We examined effects of river impoundments, one of the leading threats to freshwater biodiversity, on an important ecosystem service provided by large tropical rivers (i.e., artisanal fisheries). The societal and economic importance of this ecosystem service in developing countries may provide leverage to advance conservation agendas where future impoundments are being considered. We assessed impoundment effects on the energetic costs of fisheries production (embodied energy) and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Effects, energy, prices, relative, soil erosion