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The Crystal Geyser Dinosaur Quarry, near Green River, Utah, is located at the base of the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation. The quarry preserves a nearly monospecific accumulation of a new basal therizinosauroid, Falcarius utahensis. We used field descriptions and petrographic analysis to determine the depositional environment and development of the quarry strata. Results of these analyses suggest that the quarry represents multiple episodes of bone accumulation buried by spring and overbank flood deposits. Evidence for these previously undescribed spring deposits includes calcite macroscopic structures within the quarry strata—such as pisolites and travertine fragments—and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: PALAIOS
The Eocene Green River Formation (GRF) (United States) is one of the best-known and most extensively studied Konservat Lagerst�tte in the world. As most studies have focused on the fossil fish and plants, few studies have examined the invertebrates, particularly the ostracodes of the renowned GRF fauna. Six species of ostracodes were recovered from 18 intervals within a 154 m section of the Laney Member (LM) in the Washakie Basin (WB). Ostracode species recovered occupied a variety of biological niches, including plant and mud dwellers as well as nektonic lifestyles. Ecological tolerances of these ostracodes were used to reconstruct environmental conditions of the lake through this portion of its history. The taphonomic...
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Upper Carboniferous tidal-flat deposits near Waverly, eastern Kansas (Stull Shale Member, Kanwaka Shale Formation), host abundant and very well-preserved trace fossils attributed to the activity of burrowing bivalves. Thin shell lenses with an abundant bivalve fauna area associated with the ichnofossil-bearing beds and afford an unusual opportunity to relate trace fossils to their makers. Two distinctive life and feeding strategies can be reconstructed on the basis of trace fossil analysis and functional morphology. Lockeria siliquaria hyporeliefs commonly are connected with vertical to inclined, truncated endichnial shafts in the absence of horizontal locomotion traces. These structures record vertical and oblique...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
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Interregional correlation of the marine zones of major cyclothems between North America and eastern Europe does not support assertions that a major stratigraphic gap exists between the traditional regional Desmoinesian and Missourian stages in North America. Such a gap was previously proposed to explain an abrupt change in megafloral assemblages in the northern Appalachian Basin and by extension across all of North America. Conodont-based correlation from the essentially complete low-shelf Midcontinent succession (distal from the highstand shoreline), through the mid-shelf Illinois Basin, to the high shelf of the Appalachian Basin (proximal to highstand shoreline) demonstrates that all major ???400 kyr cyclothem...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
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The fossil-bearing unit is at approximately the same stratigraphic horizon as the lowest coal bed in the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formations. The fossils occur approx 50m above the base of the Tongue River Member in a 0.6m thick, yellowish-gray, sandy conglomerate that is interpreted to be a fluvial channel-lag deposit. The fauna includes fossils of fish, turtles, crocodiles, and mammals. Mammals thus far recovered include 21 species distributed between 17 families. Genera known from rocks of both the Torrejonian and the Tiffanian land mammal ages (middle and late Paleocene) are present, but the evolutionary stage of Aphronorus and the mutual presence of Nannodectes and a primitive species of Ectocion...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
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Similar successions of planktonic foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils, and bolboformids document coeval deposition of the Exmore impact breccia (Virginia Coastal Plain) and an impact ejecta layer at DSDP Site 612 (New Jersey Continental Slope). Both impactites accumulated in the late Eocene during the early part of biochrons P15 (planktonic foraminifera) and NP 19-20 (calcareous nannofossils), approximately 35.5-35.2 Ma. The impactite at Site 612 is part of an allochthonous debriite, 22.8 cm thick, displaced from the Toms Canyon impact crater, 40 km north-northwest of Site 612. The Exmore breccia, possibly 2000 m thick, is composed of debris displaced from the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, located in southeastern...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
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This study documents the traces and burrowing behaviors of nymphs of the prairie cicada Cicadetta calliope (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), as observed in neoichnological experiments. Cicada nymphs were collected from the C horizons of sandy Fluvents along the Kansas River east of Lawrence, Kansas. The nymphs appeared to be fifth instars, 13-17 mm long and 6-7 mm wide. Nymphs were placed in plastic enclosures containing layers of colored, moist, very fine-grained sand. They burrowed immediately, excavating air-filled, sediment-enclosed cells between 20 mm and 40 mm long and averaging 9 mm wide. Burrowing was completed in three stages: (1) sediment in the forward portion of the cell was excavated and rolled into a ball with...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
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A paleontological reconnaissance survey on Cretaceous and Paleogene terrestrial units along the Yukon River drainage through much of east-central Alaska has provided new chronostratigraphic constraints, paleoclimatological data, and the first information on local biodiversity within an ancient, high-latitude ecosystem. The studied unnamed rock unit is most notable for its historic economic gold placer deposits, but our survey documents its relevance as a source rock for Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates, invertebrates, and associated flora. Specifically, new U-Pb ages from detrital zircons combined with ichnological data are indicative of a Late Cretaceous age for at least the lower section of the studied rock unit,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
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The combined study of continental trace fossils and associated sedimentary facies provides valuable evidence of colonization trends and events throughout the Phanerozoic. Colonization of continental environments was linked to the exploitation of empty or under-utilized ecospace. Although the nonmarine trace fossil record probably begins during the Late Ordovician, significant invasion of nonmarine biotopes began close to the Silurian-Devonian transition with the establishment of a mobile arthropod epifauna (Diplichnites ichnoguild) in coastal marine to alluvial plain settings. Additionally, the presence of vertical burrows in Devonian high-energy fluvial deposits reflects the establishment of a stationary, deep...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
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The new generation of high-resolution stratigraphic research depends upon detailed bed-by-bed analysis to enhance regional correlation potential. The standard Jacob's staff is not an efficient and precise tool for measuring thin-bedded strata. The high-precision Jacob's staff design presented and illustrated in this paper meets the qualifications required of such an instrument. The prototype of this simple design consists of a sliding bracket that holds a Brunton-type compass at right angles to a ruled-off staff. This instrument provides rapid and accurate measurement of both thick- or thin-bedded sequences, thus decreasing field time and increasing stratigraphic precision. -Author
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
Here we document the occurrence of locally common oncoids in the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah in the Woodside Anticline area of the San Rafael Swell and use them to understand changes in the Early Cretaceous landscape and their effects on the dinosaur fauna. Detailed facies analysis is required to understand the context of these changes within the broader patterns of Mesozoic tectonics and the fossil record. Oncolite crops out in the Cedar Mountain Formation, directly overlying the Buckhorn Conglomerate. Oncolite is not widely distributed outside of the Woodside Anticline area. The oncoids are found in a bimodal population with the majority in the 2–5-cm-diameter range and a smaller population >25 cm in diameter....
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The analysis of diatoms from two lake-sediment cores from southwestern Tasmania that span the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary provides insight about paleolimnological and paleoclimatic change in this region. Both Lake Vera and Eagle Tarn have lacustrine records that begin about 12 000 yr ago. Both lakes have had similar limnological histories. Each appears to have been larger and more alkaline 12 000 yr ago and both became shallower through time. Fossil diatom assemblages about 11 000 yr old indicate shallow- water environments that fluctuated in pH, and between dilute and possibly slightly saline hydrochemical conditions. Beginning 11 500 yr ago, limnological conditions of shallow, dilute water of neutral pH prevailed,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
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Carbonate concretions containing permineralized peat, commonly called coal balls, were encountered in the Amburgy coal, a generally low-ash (9.4%), but commonly high-sulfur (3.6%), Middle Pennsylvanian coal of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. These are the first coal balls from the Amburgy coal, and one of only a few reported occurrences from the central Appalachian Basin. The coal balls occur in the upper part of the coal, between two paleochannel cut-outs at the top of the Pikeville Formation, and immediately beneath a scour with a marine fossil lag at the base of the Kendrick Shale Member, Hyden Formation. The coal is thickest (1.3 m) in a narrow (<300 m), elongate depression between the bounding paleochannels,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
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The Crystal Geyser Dinosaur Quarry, near Green River, Utah, is located at the base of the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation. The quarry preserves a nearly monospecific accumulation of a new basal therizinosauroid, Falcarius utahensis. We used field descriptions and petrographic analysis to determine the depositional environment and development of the quarry strata. Results of these analyses suggest that the quarry represents multiple episodes of bone accumulation buried by spring and overbank flood deposits. Evidence for these previously undescribed spring deposits includes calcite macroscopic structures within the quarry strata - such as pisolites and travertine fragments...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
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Small buildups of chaetetids and associated biota in the Higginsville Limestone Member of the Fort Scott Formation (Desmoinesian, Middle Pennsylvanian) are well exposed in three dimensions in an abandoned quarry in Crawford County, Kansas, Regional studies indicate that the buildups were deposited during a relative sea-level highstand, but within normal wave-base, on the southern flank of the Bourbon Arch. The chaetetid facies consists of a fusulinid wackestone to packstone that encloses the chaetetids. In the lower part of the chaetetid interval, chaetetids are small and tabular, but gradually upsection they grade into larger domical forms that sometimes form tall, ragged columns. These, in turn, coalesce upward...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
Principal components analysis and subsequent discriminant function analysis helped interpret environments of some fish deposits in the Eocene Green River Formation of Utah and Wyoming. The analysis related 61 environ- mental variables to differing qualities of fish preservation in 45 fish deposits. It greatly facilitated a Waltherian or "guilt by association" type of facies analysis and it also served to counteract observational biases and preconceptions. Analysis indicates that completely preserved fishes are especially associated with 1) environments that can also preserve fish coprolites, 2) environments, probably deep, that exclude scavengers and physical disturbances, and 3) abiotic mudfiats with episodic inundations...
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Large benthic foraminifera (LBF) were major contributors to many Paleogene carbonate platforms around the world. These photosymbiotic foraminifera lived in warm, oligotrophic, shallow waters within the photic zone. Such Paleogene families as the nummulitids, alveolinids, and orthophragminids rose to prominence in the late Paleocene, thrived in the early and middle Eocene, and declined in the late Eocene and Oligocene. Diversity data from these three families were studied to understand better the controls on the rise of Paleogene LBFs. Analyzed data included total diversity (total number of species per biozone), number of first occurrences per biozone, and number of last occurrences per biozone. Results indicate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
The Crystal Geyser Dinosaur Quarry contains a large monospecific accumulation of bones from a basal therizinosaur, Falcarius utahensis. The quarry is located approximately 16 km south of Green River, Utah, at the base of the early Cretaceous (Barremian) Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation. Fossil bones in the quarry occur in three units that have distinct taphonomic, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics. Rare earth element compositions of fossils suggest that bones from each unit were drawn from different reservoirs or sources having distinctly different compositions, and fossils were not reworked between units. Compositions of bones differ greatly within Units 1 and 2, even within the same...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: PALAIOS
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The composition, species abundances, and spatial and temporal distributions of mollusc assemblages were controlled by the environments in which they lived and the depositional processes that affected the molluscs after death and before final burial. Post-mortem transport, reworking and concentration of shells, and mixing of faunal elements from discrete habitats produced a taphonomic 'overprint' on assemblage characteristics that directly reflects the processes of alluvial plain and floodbasin lacustrine sedimentation. The 'overprint' can be interpreted from outcrop analysis of molluscan biofabric, which consists of: 1) orientation, fragmentation, size-sorting, abrasion, density, and dispersion of shells, 2) the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios
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Coniform stromatolites are found in several sites in the Tokaanu and Whakarewarewa geothermal areas of North Island, New Zealand. At Tokaanu, silicification of these stromatolites is taking place in Kirihoro, a shallow hot springfed pool. At Whakarewarewa, subfossil silicified coniform stromatolites are found on the floor of "Waikite Pool" on the discharge apron below Waikite Geyser, and in an old sinter succession at Te Anarata. The microbes in the coniform stromatolites from Tokaanu, Waikite Pool, and Te Anarata have been well preserved through rapid silicification. Nevertheless, subtle differences in the silicification style induced morphological variations that commonly mask or alter morphological features needed...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Palaios