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Two distributed parameter models, a one-dimensional (1D) model and a two-dimensional (2D) model, are developed to simulate overland flow in two small semiarid shrubland watersheds in the Jornada basin, southern New Mexico. The models are event-based and represent each watershed by an array of 1-m2 cells, in which the cell size is approximately equal to the average area of the shrubs. Each model uses only six parameters, for which values are obtained from field surveys and rainfall simulation experiments. In the 1D model, flow volumes through a fixed network are computed by a simple finite-difference solution to the 1D kinematic wave equation. In the 2D model, flow directions and volumes are computed by a second-order...
Summary Rainfall–runoff simulations were conducted to estimate the characteristics of the steady-state infiltration rate into 1-m2 north- and south-facing hillslope plots burned by a wildfire in October 2003. Soil profiles in the plots consisted of a two-layer system composed of an ash on top of sandy mineral soil. Multiple rainfall rates (18.4–51.2 mm h−1) were used during 14 short-duration (30 min) and 2 long-duration simulations (2–4 h). Steady state was reached in 7–26 min. Observed spatially-averaged steady-state infiltration rates ranged from 18.2 to 23.8 mm h−1 for north-facing and from 17.9 to 36.0 mm h−1 for south-facing plots. Three different theoretical spatial distribution models of steady-state infiltration...
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This USGS Data Release represents the synthetic and real data from hydrologically diverse streams used to test the performance and limitations of the Two-tracer Ratio-based Mixing Model (TRaMM) which uses high-frequency measures of two tracers (A and B) and streamflow to separate total streamflow into water from slowflow and fastflow sources. The ratio between the concentrations of the two tracers is used to create a time-variable estimate of the concentration of each tracer in the fastflow end-member. Synthetic data from a groundwater dominated stream and an overland flow dominated stream were used to test the sensitivity of the model to various conditions and tracer concentrations. The sensitivity analysis provides...


    map background search result map search result map One- and two-dimensional modelling of overland flow in semiarid shrubland, Jornada basin, New Mexico Real and synthetic data used to test the Two-tracer Ratio-based Mixing Model (TRaMM) One- and two-dimensional modelling of overland flow in semiarid shrubland, Jornada basin, New Mexico Real and synthetic data used to test the Two-tracer Ratio-based Mixing Model (TRaMM)