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We assessed the effectiveness of the western pearl mussel (Margaritifera falcata, Gould, 1850) as a bioindicator of aquatic system health. Fifty-years ago a large dredge mining operation for columbite-tantalite ores [(Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6] disturbed a substantial portion of the Middle Fork of the Salmon River headwaters in Idaho. The disturbance likely increased concentrations of dissolved metals at the time. To evaluate the potential long-term impacts, if any, concentrations of Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn in shell and soft tissues of western pearl mussels, collected from five reaches in Bear Valley Creek, were analyzed. We quantified the partitioning and bioaccumulation with respect to age of the four metals in the shell, gills...
Gteasewoo(dS atcobat**sr miaiatus (Hook.) Torr.) is an indigeoous piny shrub found on moist alkali-sodic soils in southeastetn Montana- Flowering is primarily in lugust, seed matures in Ocrober. and seed shaner begins in November. Filled seed percenrages ranged lrom 16 to 94. Highly viable dewinged seed numbered 425 per gm. lWhen rhd membinous pericarp is rupturcd, germination-a simple uocoiling of the embryo-may occur jn less tban an hour and rooi hairs may appear in less rhan 24 hours. Rapid imbibition occurs wheo the pericarp is fully intact; howevef,. germination is slos and many achenes do not germinate even -afrer 3b days;f beitr; fu[y imbibed. Germination peaL was in two days, and germination .was 98 lercert...