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The planned removal of two dams that have been in place for over 95 years on the Elwha River provides a unique opportunity to study dam removal effects. Among the largest dams ever considered for removal, this project is compelling because 83% of the watershed lies undisturbed in Olympic National Park. Eighteen million cubic meters of sediment have accumulated in and will be released from the reservoirs, and there is potential for rehabilitating depressed Pacific salmon runs. Researchers from academia, non-profit organizations, federal and state governments, and the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe are currently assessing baseline ecological conditions of the Elwha River as part of dam removal studies. We introduce dam...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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Previous studies have shown that the impacts of climate change on the hydrologic response of the Skagit River are likely to be substantial under natural (i.e. unregulated) conditions. To assess the combined effects of changing natural flow and dam operations that determine impacts to regulated flow, a new integrated daily-time-step reservoir operations model was constructed for the Skagit River Basin. The model was used to simulate current reservoir operating policies for historical flow conditions and for projected flows for the 2040s (2030–2059) and 2080s (2070–2099). The results show that climate change is likely to cause substantial seasonal changes in both natural and regulated flow, with more flow in the winter...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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In the last issue of Northwest Science, Hayward and Iverson (“Long-Term Trends in Marbled Murrelets in Southeast Alaska Based on Christmas Bird Counts”) failed to mention other evidence for 40-75% declines in murrelet populations, or discuss implications of a climate regime shift that has reduced populations of seabirds in Alaska, or present any useful information on the status of old-growth breeding habitat for murrelets. They examined Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data from Southeast Alaska, and concluded that there is no evidence for declines in populations. They suggested that our (Piatt and Naslund 1995) previous analysis of CBC data for murrelets was erroneous, and suggested that “the disparity between our conclusions…...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
We assessed the effectiveness of the western pearl mussel (Margaritifera falcata, Gould, 1850) as a bioindicator of aquatic system health. Fifty-years ago a large dredge mining operation for columbite-tantalite ores [(Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6] disturbed a substantial portion of the Middle Fork of the Salmon River headwaters in Idaho. The disturbance likely increased concentrations of dissolved metals at the time. To evaluate the potential long-term impacts, if any, concentrations of Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn in shell and soft tissues of western pearl mussels, collected from five reaches in Bear Valley Creek, were analyzed. We quantified the partitioning and bioaccumulation with respect to age of the four metals in the shell, gills...
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With increased concern over the status of reptile populations globally, contaminant studies should be part of species evaluations. We analyzed eggs of western pond turtles from Fern Ridge Reservoir in western Oregon for 20 organochlorine (OC) pesticides or metabolites, 42 congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 trace elements or metals. These eggs represent the first of this species analyzed. The OC pesticides and PCB residue concentrations in the western pond turtle eggs were generally low and similar to those found in eggs of snapping turtles from a remote site in Ontario, Canada. Western pond turtle eggs also contained mercury and chromium, which are metals of special concern. Although few...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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We examined the differences in activity patterns and community structure of bats between low (<150 m) and high ( ! 575 m) elevation sites in two habitats of the Capitol State Forest, Washington. Total bat activity averaged four times higher at low elevation sites than at high elevation sites. Feeding activity was almost 20 times higher at low elevation sites. However, the non-myotis group had similar activity levels at high and low elevation, whereas myotis group activity decreased at higher elevations. Different levels of activity between elevations could be the result of differences in insect availability, climatic conditions, and morphology of the bat species.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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In the summers 1995-1998, we sampled 168 streams (1,714 in of randomly selected 1-m bands) to determine distribution and abundance of stream amphibians in Olympic National Park, Washington. We found six nests (two in one stream) of the tailed frog, compared to only two nests with clutch sizes reported earlier for coastal regions. This represents only one nest per 286 in searched and one nest per 34 streams sampled. Tailed frogs occurred only in 94 (60%) of the streams and, for these waters, we found one nest per 171 in searched or one nest per 20 streams sampled. The numbers of eggs for four masses ((x) over bar = 48.3, range 40-55) were low but one single strand in a fifth nest had 96 eggs. One nest with 185 eggs...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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As many as 2.4 million adult American shad annually pass John Day Dam, Columbia River to spawn upriver, yet food web interactions of juvenile shad rearing in John Day Reservoir are unexplored. We collected zooplankton and conducted mid-water trawls in McNary (June-July) and John Day reservoirs (August-November) from 1994 through 1996 during the outmigration of subyearling American shad and Chinook salmon. Juvenile American shad were abundant and represented over 98% of the trawl catch in late summer. The five major taxa collected in zooplankton tows were Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia, cyclopoid cope-pods, rotifers, and calanoid copepods. We evaluated total crustacean zooplankton abundance and Daphnia biomass in...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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We investigated the growth and feeding performance of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss using field measures and bioenergetics modeling. Juvenile steelhead populations were sampled from mid-June through August 2004 at study sites upstream and downstream of Hemlock Dam. The growth and diet of juvenile steelhead were determined for a warm (summer) and subsequent (late summer) transitional period at each study site. Empirical data on the growth and diet of juvenile steelhead and mean daily temperatures were used in a bioenergetics model to estimate the proportion of maximum consumption achieved by juvenile steelhead by site and period. Modeled estimates of feeding performance were better for juvenile steelhead...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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Adult Pacific lamprey migration and habitat preferences for over-winter holding and spawning, and larval rearing in tributaries to the Columbia River are not well understood. The John Day River is one such tributary where larval and adult stages of this species have been documented, and its free-flowing character provided the opportunity to study migration of Pacific lampreys unimpeded by passage constraints. Forty-two adult Pacific lampreys were captured in the John Day River near its mouth during their upstream migration. Pacific lampreys were surgically implanted with radio transmitters and released onsite, and tracked by fixed-site, aerial, and terrestrial telemetry methods for nearly one year. Adults moved...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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The widespread declines of native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) populations prompted researchers to investigate factors influencing their distribution and status in western Glacier National Park, Montana. We evaluated the association of a suite of abiotic factors (stream width, elevation, gradient, large woody debris density, pool density, August mean stream temperature, reach surface area) with the occurrence (presence or absence) of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in 79 stream reaches in five sub-drainages containing glacial lakes. We modeled the occurrence of each species using logistic regression and evaluated competing models using an...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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Crater Lake occupies the collapsed caldera of volcanic Mount Mazama in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon. It is the deepest lake (589 m) in the United States and the 7th deepest lake in the world. The water column mixes to a depth of about 200 m in winter and spring from wind energy and cooling. The deep lake is mixed in winter and early spring each year when relatively cold water near the surface sinks and exchanges positions with water in the deep basins of the lake. The lake becomes thermally stratified in summer and early fall. The metalimnion extends to a depth of about 100 m; thus most of the water column is a cold hypolimnion. Secchi disk clarity measurements typically are in the upper-20-m range to the low-30-m...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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During May-September 1995, we replicated an earlier (1984-85) study of fishes in shoreline habitats of the John Day Reservoir, Columbia River, to investigate fish assemblage structure at several spatial and temporal scales. A total of 37,400 resident fishes representing 24 taxa was collected in 359 beach seine hauls. Fish catch composition during 1984 and 1985 was very similar, but was greatly different from catch in 1995. During 1984-1985, four native taxa (chiselmouth, northern pikeminnow, suckers, and sand rollers) constituted more than 90% of the combined main-channel catch, with introduced taxa comprising only 1.3% of the main-channel catch. In contrast, during 1995 only 37.7% of the main-channel catch comprised...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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Study of a sequence of terraces in the western Snake River Plain of Idaho reveals a record of at least seven terraces, the ages of which span the Pleistocene. In the Boise Valley, the youngest terraces are less than -14,500 yr and the oldest terraces are -1.7 Ma. Within this sequence, several relationships exist between soil morphology and terrace chronology. On terraces older than -14,500 yr, argillic horizon development generally increases with terrace age with maximum development occurring in soils of the oldest terraces. CaCO3- and SiO2-cemented duripans are found in soils on terraces that are late middle Pleistocene and older. By virtue of their physical and chemical properties, duripans are very resistant...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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The planned removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington, will likely increase river sediment flux to the coast, which may alter coastal habitats through sedimentation and turbidity. It is therefore important to characterize the current habitat conditions near the river mouth, so that future changes can be identified. Here we provide combined sonar and video mapping results of approximately 20 km2 of seafloor offshore of the Elwha River collected with the purpose to characterize nearshore substrate type and distribution prior to dam removal. These combined data suggest that the nearshore of the western delta and Freshwater Bay are dominated by coarse sediment (sand, gravel, cobble, and boulders) and bedrock...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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A one-person submersible was used to examine the vertical distribution of the deep-water moss Drepanocladus aduncus (Hedw.) Warnst in Crater Lake (Oregon). Living specimens were found attached to sediment and rocks at depths between 25 m and 140 m. Dense beds of the moss were observed at depths between 30 m and 80 m, a region that corresponded roughly to the zone of maximum primary production by phytoplankton. The moss population supported a diverse assemblage of epiphytic algae, of which the most abundant genera included Cladophora,Oedogonium, Rhizoclonium, Tribonema, Vaucheria, and the diatoms Cocconeis, Cymbella, Epithemia, Fragilaria, Gomphonema, Melosira, Navicula, and Synedra. Chemical and physical data supported...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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Water from Seattle's South Fork Tolt Reservoir contains chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers, derived from natural sources. Using optical petrographic techniques, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, we identified the geologic source of these asbestiform minerals within the watershed. No asbestos was found in the bedrock underlying the watershed, while both chrysotile and amphibole fibers were found in sediments transported by Puget-lobe glacial processes. These materials, widely distributed throughout the lower watershed, would be difficult to separate from the reservoir sediments. The probable source of this asbestos is in pods of ultramafic rock occurring north of the watershed. Because asbestos...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science
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We examined how management of young upland forests in southeastern Alaska affect riparian invertebrate taxa richness, density, and biomass, in turn, potentially influencing food abundance for fish and wildlife. Southeastern Alaska forests are dominated by coniferous trees including Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), with mixed stands of red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.). Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is hypothesized to influence the productivity of young-growth conifer forests and through forest management may provide increased riparian invertebrate abundance. To compare and contrast invertebrate densities between coniferous and alder riparian habitats,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Northwest Science


map background search result map search result map Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington