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Four strains of yearling lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the 1985 and 1986 year-classes at the Allegheny National Fish Hatchery were evaluated for nuclear cataracts prior to stocking in Lake Ontario in June 1986 and 1987. Lake trout recaptured by bottom trawling from April to August 1987 and 1988 were examined for cataracts. Cataract frequencies in three strains of yearling lake trout at stocking in 1986 and after 14 and 26 months in the lake were: Seneca Lake–35, 24, and 29%; Lake Ontario–32,24, and 42%; and Lake Superior–7,4, and 6%. Cataract frequencies for yearlings at stocking in 1987 and after 2 and 14 months were: Seneca Lake–51, 37, and 51 %; Lake Superior–7,12, and 12%; and Jenny Lake–46,13, and 36%....
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Translocations to recover native fishes have resulted in mixed success. One reason for the failure of these actions is inadequate assessments of their feasibility prior to implementation. Here, we provide a framework developed to assess the feasibility of one type of translocation-reintroduction. The framework was founded on two simple components of feasibility: the potential for recipient habitats to support a reintroduction and the potential of available donor populations to support a reintroduction. Within each component, we developed a series of key questions. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that incorporated consideration of uncertainty in available information. The result was a simple yet...
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The fluvial Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus is restricted to less than 5% of its native range in the contiguous United States and was relisted as a category 3 candidate species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 2010. Although fluvial Arctic grayling of the lower Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, were considered to have been extirpated by 1935, anglers and biologists have continued to report catching low numbers of Arctic grayling in the river. Our goal was to determine whether a viable population of fluvial Arctic grayling persisted in the Gibbon River or whether the fish caught in the river were downstream emigrants from lacustrine populations in headwater lakes. We addressed this goal...
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There is little information on the winter features of salmonid habitats associated with constructed instream structures to provide guidance when planning habitat improvement projects. We assessed winter habitat features for trout of the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus in pools associated with two types of instream structures constructed on a low-gradient reach of a mountain stream in western Wyoming with a mean wetted width of 6.4 m. Pool habitat was affected by temporal variability in ice formations from fall into winter. As surface ice and snow accumulated with the progression of winter, variation in ice formations was less frequent and winter habitat conditions became more stable. However, groundwater inflow...
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First summer survival and subsequent growth of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar planted as eggs and fry in a tributary of Cayuga Lake, New York, were examined for 3 years. Atlantic salmon were planted in December 1999-2001 in 20 Whitlock-Vibert (W-V) egg incubators, each containing 300 eyed eggs. The following May, 500 fin-clipped Atlantic salmon fry were released in the same stream section. In autumn, a backpack electroshocker was used to capture fry to assess survival and growth. Mean survival was significantly greater for fry (27.9%) than eggs (0.8%). In autumn, mean length was significantly greater for Atlantic salmon released as fry (90.1 mm) than those planted as eggs (76.2 mm), probably owing to accelerated growth...
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Six Fathom Bank, an offshore reef in the central region of Lake Huron's main basin, was stocked annually with hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush during 1985–1998, and nearby Yankee Reef was stocked with hatchery-reared lake trout in 1992, 1997, and annually during 1999–2001. We conducted gill-net surveys during spring and fall to evaluate performances of each of the various strains of lake trout, as well as the performance of the entire lake trout population (all strains pooled), on these two offshore reefs during 1992–2000. Criteria to evaluate performance included the proportion of “wild” fish within the population, spawner density, adult survival, growth, maturity, and wounding rate by sea lamprey...
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The incidence and severity of trauma associated with multiple-pass electrofishing and the effects on short-term (30-d) survival and growth of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and five representative co-inhabiting nontarget or bycatch species were examined. Fish were held in four rectangular fiberglass tanks (190 × 66 cm) equipped with electrodes, a gravel–cobble stream substrate, and continuous water flow. Fish were exposed to one, two, or three electroshocks (100-V, 60-Hz pulsed DC) spaced 1 h apart or were held as a control. The heterogeneous field produced a mean (±SD) voltage gradient of 0.23 ± 0.024 V/cm (range = 0.20–0.30 V/cm) with a duty cycle of 30% and a 5-s exposure....
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We examined spawning site selection and habitat use by American shad Alosa sapidissima in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina, to inform future management in this flow-regulated river. American shad eggs were collected in plankton tows, and the origin (spawning site) of each egg was estimated; relocations of radio-tagged adults on spawning grounds illustrated habitat use and movement in relation to changes in water discharge rates. Most spawning was estimated to occur in the Piedmont physiographic region within a 25-river-kilometer (rkm) section just below the lowermost dam in the system; however, some spawning also occurred downstream in the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region has a higher gradient...
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The movements of 23 northern Squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis were monitored by radiotelemetry below a Columbia River hydroelectric dam during the out-migration of juvenile anadromous salmonids in 1984 and 1985. The work was done as part of a study to relate predator abundances and distribution to juvenile salmonid mortalities associated with dams. Northern Squawfish remained in protected shoreline areas in spring and early summer, when discharge rates were high, but moved close to the dam and the juvenile bypass outflow area in mid to late summer, when discharge rates were low. Trends in northern Squawfish movements were similar during abrupt changes in discharge rate. During short-term closures of the spillway,...
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To evaluate biological potential of a commercial fishery for an unexploited Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, we estimated population parameters related to production and yield. The length frequency based on trap-netting in autumn 2005 was normal with a mean of 448 mm TL, whereas the length frequency based on gillnetting in spring 2006 was bimodal with a mean of 390 mm TL. Sex composition was skewed toward females (0.66) during autumn trap-netting. Shape parameters β of weight–length models for females (β = 3.38) and males (β = 3.45) were similar to those of other unexploited populations. Instantaneous growth rates K for females (K = 0.144 per year) and males (K = 0.153...
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Hatchery supplementation has been widely used as a restoration technique for American Shad Alosa sapidissima on the East Coast of the USA, but results have been equivocal. In the Penobscot River, Maine, dam removals and other improvements to fish passage will likely reestablish access to the majority of this species’ historic spawning habitat. Additional efforts being considered include the stocking of larval American Shad. The decision about whether to stock a river system undergoing restoration should be made after evaluating the probability of natural recolonization and examining the costs and benefits of potentially accelerating recovery using a stocking program. However, appropriate evaluation can be confounded...
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Riverine hydroacoustic techniques are an effective method for evaluating abundance of upstream migrating anadromous fishes. To use these methods in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, at a wide site with uneven bottom topography, we used a combination of split-beam sonar and dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) deployments. We aimed a split-beam sonar horizontally to monitor midchannel and near-bottom zones continuously over the 3-month spring monitoring periods in 2010 and 2011. The DIDSON was rotated between seven cross-channel locations (using a vertical aim) and nearshore regions (using horizontal aims). Vertical deployment addressed blind spots in split-beam coverage along the bottom and provided reliable...
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We evaluated the diel habitat use and movement of subadult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus by use of radiotelemetry during winter in the upper Flathead River, Montana. Of the 13 monitored bull trout, 12 (92%) made at least one diel movement to other habitat locations during their respective day–night tracking surveys and moved an average of 73% of the time. The median distance moved from day to night locations by the mobile fish was 86 m (range, 27–594 m). Diel shifts in habitat use by nine of the tagged fish were related to light intensity; nocturnal emergence generally commenced immediately after the onset of night, and daytime concealment occurred at daybreak. When diel shifts in microhabitat use occurred,...
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Eradication of nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis populations is difficult to achieve with standard techniques, such as electrofishing removal or piscicides; new approaches are needed. A novel concept is to stock “supermale” hatchery fish with wild conspecifics. Supermales (MYY) have two Y-chromosomes, resulting in offspring that are all males; over time, successful supermale reproduction could eradicate the wild population. We constructed an age-structured stochastic model to investigate the effects of manually suppressing wild fish and stocking MYY fingerlings on the long-term viability of hypothetical nonnative Brook Trout populations. In streams, an annual stocking rate of supermales equivalent to 50%...
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Creel surveys are valuable tools in recreational fisheries management. However, multiple‐impoundment fisheries of complex spatial structure can complicate survey designs and pose logistical challenges for management agencies. Marben Public Fishing Area in Mansfield, GA is a multi‐impoundment fishery with many access points, and these features prevent or complicate use of traditional on‐site contact methods such as standard roving‐ or access‐point designs because many anglers may be missed during the survey process. Therefore, adaptation of a traditional survey method is often required for sampling this special case of multi‐lake fisheries to develop an accurate fishery profile. Accordingly, a modified non‐uniform...
Studies of the whirling disease epizootic in the upper Colorado River drainage have suggested that Windy Gap Reservoir is a source of the fish-infective actinospore of Myxobolus cerebralis. We divided the reservoir into four quadrants (12 zones) and conducted a core-sampling study to determine the spatial dynamics of actinospore production within the reservoir from late June to early November 1998. Core samples of reservoir substrate containing aquatic oligochaetes were collected, held for 24 h in filtered lake water, and then examined microscopically for actinospore production. Actinospores were produced from core samples taken in every quadrant, but the samples from one quadrant gave the overall highest estimates...
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Estimating the time required (i.e., age) for fish in a population to reach a specific length (e.g., legal harvest length) is useful for understanding population dynamics and simulating the potential effects of length-based harvest regulations. The age at which a population reaches a specific mean length is typically estimated by fitting a von Bertalanffy growth function to length-at-age data and then rearranging the best-fit equation to solve for age at the specified length. This process precludes the use of standard frequentist methods to compute confidence intervals and compare estimates of age at the specified length among populations. We provide a parameterization of the von Bertalanffy growth function that...
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Fishery-independent (FI) surveys provide critical information used for the sustainable management and conservation of fish populations. Because fisheries management often requires the effects of management actions to be evaluated and detected within a relatively short time frame, it is important that research be directed toward FI survey evaluation, especially with respect to the ability to detect temporal trends. Using annual FI gill-net survey data for Lake Erie walleyes Sander vitreus collected from 1978 to 2006 as a case study, our goals were to (1) highlight the usefulness of hierarchical models for estimating spatial and temporal sources of variation in catch per effort (CPE); (2) demonstrate how the resulting...


map background search result map search result map Winter ice processes and pool habitat associated with two types of constructed instream structures Dynamics of an introduced and unexploited Lake Whitefish population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho Dynamics of an introduced and unexploited Lake Whitefish population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho Winter ice processes and pool habitat associated with two types of constructed instream structures