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Gas conversion to liquefied gas (LNG) and transport by LNG tankers is one option for meeting expanding gas consumption and for gas traded internationally. This paper examines the impact of the traditional gas contract provisions of indefinite pricing, market out price ceilings, and take‐or‐pay requirements on the profitability of LNG projects in the context of markets characterized by price and quantity uncertainty. Simulation experiments are used to examine and calibrate the effects of those provisions. The results provide guidance to operators, host countries and purchasers in structuring such contracts. The paper also assesses prospects of future expansion of world LNG capacity.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Natural Resources Forum
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Reducing the impact of drought and famine remains a challenge in sub-Saharan Africa despite ongoing drought relief assistance in recent decades. This is because drought and famine are primarily addressed through a crisis management approach when a disaster occurs, rather than stressing preparedness and risk management. Moreover, drought planning and food security efforts have been hampered by a lack of integrated drought monitoring tools, inadequate early warning systems (EWS), and insufficient information flow within and between levels of government in many sub-Saharan countries. The integration of existing drought monitoring tools for sub-Saharan Africa is essential for improving food security systems to reduce...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Natural Resources Forum
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Increased energy demand as a result of growth in population, trends to sedentation and urbanization, and the desire for improvement in living standards, coupled with apparent climatic changes, are reducing fuelwood availability and contributing to deforestation and desertification in the sub‐Saharan countries. In 14 of those countries, the transport, industrial, and electric power generation sectors are all dependent on imported petroleum products for their energy needs with resultant balance of trade and debt‐servicing problems. Coal and peat are essentially unused and in some cases unknown in sub‐Saharan Africa. However, they might comprise valuable alternative energy sources in some or all of the developing nations...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Natural Resources Forum
At the heart of most international water conflicts is the question of ?equitable? allocations, criteria for which are vague and often contradictory. However, application of an equitable water-sharing agreement along the volatile waterways of the globe is a prerequisite to hydropolitical stability. This article explores the question of equity measures for water-sharing agreements in the context of global hydropolitics and is divided into three parts. The Introduction provides a brief summary of the general principles of equitable allocations. The second part of the paper describes the practice of water resources allocations as exemplified in the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database - a computerized database...
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The geologic and geomorphic expressions of a mineral deposit determine its location, size, and accessibility, characteristics which in turn greatly influence the success of artisans mining the deposit. Despite this critical information, which can be garnered through studying the surficial physical expression of a deposit, the geologic and geomorphic sciences have been largely overlooked in artisanal mining-related research. This study demonstrates that a correlation exists between the roles of female miners at artisanal diamond and gold mining sites in western and central Africa and the physical expression of the deposits. Typically, women perform ore processing and ancillary roles at mine sites. On occasion, however,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Natural Resources Forum
A recent workshop at Cornell University on water resources and environmental systems analysis provided an opportunity for about 70 attendees, mostly from North America, but some also from Asia, Europe, and South America, to discuss some of the important current issues and future research needs in this field. This paper summarizes the writers' perceptions of those informal discussions, especially pertaining to that part directed toward systems modeling. After over two decades of research and application, it is evident that there have been some beneficial impacts from various modelling applications. However, additional research needs are evident. These needs are identified and discussed. Published in Natural Resources...


    map background search result map search result map The influence of geomorphology on the role of women at artisanal and small-scale mine sites The influence of geomorphology on the role of women at artisanal and small-scale mine sites